Should you really ‘stay together for the kids’?

Dear writer,
Thank you for the opportunity to work on this project. We believe that we have provided an excellent and informative list of resources for the issue of whether unhappy couples should stay together for their children. In order to provide accurate information and avoid bias, we used a variety of resources including primary articles, reviewed articles, books, videos and websites. We introduce the topic with definitions, a brief word on divorce in different cultures and a psychologist's perspective on divorce along with the positive and negative impacts on those involved. There is a alot of controversy about whether unhappy couples should stay together for the sake of their children. Through our extensive research, it has been made evident that the majority of articles emphasize the negative aspects of divorce towards children. Unfortunately, only a few articles compare an unhappy marriage before divorce against after divorce. I hope you find our research useful to conduct your article on.
Best,
Phillip, Nana, Negar, Kate

"Divorce is a life-transforming experience. After divorce, childhood is different. Adolescence is different. Adulthood with the decision to marry or not and have children or not is different. Whether the outcome is good or bad, the whole trajectory of an individual’s life is profoundly altered by the divorce experience."
—Dr. Judith S. Wallerstein

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Introduction

Divorce rates rose a dramatic 79 percent in the United States between 1970 and 1977. Although these high rates have since decreased, divorce rate is still high. In the 1970s, children were considered to be better off living with one parent than to live with both parents amidst conflict, abuse, or both.(Matthews, 1987).There is considerable evidence from numerous research studies that indicate a conflict-ridden marriage is not in the best interest of the children. Sometimes, divorce is the best thing to do.There are some who would argue that children are not affected by divorce. So, what is the best action? Should parents really stay together for the sake of their children?

Matthews, D. W. (1887) . Long term effects of divorce on children. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.
Retrieved from: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs482.pdf

Key Terms

  • Marriage - The legally or formally recognized union of a man and a woman (or, in some jurisdictions, two people of the same sex) as partners in a relationship.
  • Divorce - The legal dissolution of a marriage by a court or other competent body.
  • Relationship - The way in which two or more people are connected, or the state of being connected.
  • Joint Custody - Is a court order whereby custody of a child is awarded to both parties. In joint custody both parents are custodial parents and neither parent is a non-custodial parent, or, in other words, the child has two custodial parents.
  • Dissolution - The closing down or dismissal of an assembly, partnership, or official body.
  • Attachment Theory - Is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
  • Family Therapy - Is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, clinical social worker or licensed therapist.
  • Marriage Counseling (Couples Therapy) - Is a type of psychotherapy. Marriage counseling helps couples of all types recognize and resolve conflicts and improve their relationships.

Marriage. (n. d). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/

Divorce

Divorce Occurs in Six Phases

1) Emotional divorce: The positive feelings of love and affection are displaced by feelings of anger, frustration, hurt, dislike.The couple think that the positive feelings are gone forever.
2) Legal divorce:It involves the legal documentation that the couple is no longer married to each other.
3) Co-parental divorce: deals with custody, single­ parent homes, and visitation. This is also a very emotional part of the divorcing process.
4) Community divorce:it involves the changes of friends and community that every divorcing person experiences.
5) Psychic divorce: It means that divorcing people should adjust to live alone.
6)Economic divorce:it is related to money and property division between two people.Sometimes, this is the most volatile phase of divorce.

Different Factors That Influence How Much Divorce Would Affect the Children

1) Gender: Boys are more at risk than girls.
2) Age: Younger children are more at risk because the loss of the parent that do not longer living in the home.However, younger children are less able to make sense of all the changes that are occurring.
3) Socioeconomic status: Divorce might changes the standard of living. Less money means some of the children’s needs may not be met.
4) Relationship with each parent before the divorce: If children have a good pre-divorce relationships with parents, the risk for post-divorce problems is reduced.
5) The degree to which the child was drawn into marital conflict: The more a child experience the parental conflict, the more emotional problem he or she would have(Matthews, 1987).

Matthews, D. W. (1887) . Long term effects of divorce on children. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved from: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs482.pdf

Marriage and Divorce by Culture

Marriages now often end in divorce compared to a couple of decades ago and the rates by country of origin may be interpreted as evidence of the importance of culture. Marriage and divorce statistics by culture:

African American and Black Community

- In 2006, 69% of Blacks said it is very important to marry when a man and a woman plan to spend the rest of their lives together as a couple and 50% of Blacks said it is important to marry when they have a child together
- African-American mothers in urban have strong "pro-marriage" attitudes
- Black women divorce rate nearly double of either white or Hispanic women

Asian and Pacific Islanders

- Marriage is very common, and is considered the means to building families, and families are very important to Asians
- Most women would stay in toxic marriages with no social life and no emotional connection for the sake of duty, finances, children, fear, and honouring the family name
- Asian Americans have a high rate of intermarriage (that is marriage to those in another racial/ethnic group)

Hispanic and Latinos

- Family is an important cultural value to Hispanics, and marriage in the Hispanic culture is usually seen in a familial context extending beyond the nucleus of the married couple
- When a Hispanic individual is married to a non-Hispanic individual, their marriages are more likely to end in divorce than when they are married to a Hispanic individual

When love and culture clash, it usually results to isolation, language barrier, sense of loss of their own identity which means confusion at their own cultural identity. When people intermarry, they somewhat lose their identity. The rise of marriage between people who comes from two different countries and with different cultures and values often leads to divorce and cross-border marriages is leading more lawyers to advice couples who do not share the same passport to consider and think about what they are getting into and do their legal research before getting married.

Marriage and Divorce Statistics by Culture. (2015, April13). Retrieved from
http://www.healthymarriageinfo.org/research-and-policy/marriage-facts/culture/index.aspx

When love and culture clash | Prospect Magazine.(2015, April13). Retrieved from
http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/features/cross-border-marriage-divorce

When Marriages Start To Fail.(2015, April13). Retrieved from
http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2014/05/31/south-asians-divorce-taboo_n_4178424.html

Our society's divorce culture: A Durkheimian perspective

This study examines the attitude that children of different gender, age, religion, socioeconomic status, and race have towards divorce. Statistical effects of divorce on children are compared to the experiences of actual children. Studies which prove that children of divorced marriages tend to develop more social and psychological issues are also examined. The importance of having divorce education programs as a key to positively effect and reduce the social and psychological issues experienced by children and parents is emphasized in this study.

Meltzer, S. (2011). Our divorce culture: A durkheimian perspective. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 52(3), 147-163. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10502556.2011.556962


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Dr. Phil's Advice About the Divorce

  • Master's degree and Ph.D. in psychology at the University of North Texas
  • Dr. McGraw has used the Dr. Phil platform to make psychology accessible and understandable to the general public by addressing important personal and social issues, while also stripping away the shame and embarrassment that often keep people from seeking help
  • Using his top-rated show as a teaching tool, he discusses the critical issues of our time, including the “silent epidemics” of bullying, drug abuse, domestic violence, depression, child abuse, suicide and various forms of severe mental illness
  • Dr. Phil, along with the assistance of leading scholars and behavioural scientists, educate viewers about the state-of-the-art and evidence-based treatment options for many of the most challenging problems faced by individuals, couples and families
  • Dr. McGraw’s work was recognized and honoured with a presidential citation by the American Psychological Association in 2006
  • The Dr. Phil show has received 27 Emmy nominations and won 5 PRISM Awards for the accurate depiction of drug, alcohol and tobacco abuse and addiction as well as the MADD Media Award
  • Dr. Phil provides insights into parental guidance during and after divorces. His insights are supported by studies on divorce and family relationships (Ellis, 2000; Knoester & Booth, 2000).

About Dr. Phil. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.drphil.com/shows/page/bio/

How do you know you’re ready for a Divorce?

Every marriage experiences problems. No matter how long you have been together, problems will always arise (McGraw, 2015). They can be extremely intense and painful or they can be the opposite, but pain can last a very long time. Difficult barriers and problems often make it seem like the only option left in a relationship is to get out by means of divorce. Statistics show that parents often divorce too quickly and before they are truly ready (Litwin, 2002).

Litwin, G. (2002). Unhappily Ever After. Times - Colonist. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/345888945?accountid=15182

Many strategies and resources are available to couples that want to work on their relationship or save their marriage. Resources include books, therapists, marriage counseling, couples therapy and seminars.

The following video, "I've Divorced My Ex Twice, but I'm Still in Love", is an example of a couple that is desperate to save their relationship. The video shows a husband and wife, Derrick and Gwen, who are engaged in an ugly war. They have been married and divorced twice now, however they claim they are still in love, hoping for a round three. They reach out to Dr. Phil for counseling and to help save their marriage.

McGraw, P. (2015, April 08). I’ve Divorced My Ex Twice, but I’m Still in Love. [Video file] Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Ts1TIUgALA

Have you tried to save your Marriage?

Before pulling the plug, you need to ask yourself

• What was your marriage like when it worked?
• When did it go wrong? Why?
• Is what you're fighting about worth breaking up your marriage?
• What do you want?
• Are you willing to put in the effort to make the relationship work?
• What are you doing to contaminate the relationship?
• Are you ready to adopt a new standard of conduct with your children?
• Are you willing to create a new relationship as a co-parent?

The following link shows Dr. Phil addressing a couple and whether they are ready for divorce.
In the video, Dr. Phil asks the couple the 5 key questions he believes can determine whether a couple is ready or not.

1. Have you done everything you can to save and rehabilitate your marriage?
2. Do you have unfinished emotional business?
3. Have you researched, planned, and prepared yourself legally for divorce?
4. Are you ready to adopt a new standard of conduct with your children?
5. Are you willing to create a new relationship as a co-parent?

McGraw, P. (2010, June 22). Are You Ready For A Divorce? [Video file] Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLrt7WUFFu0

Is Staying Together the Best Option for Everyone Involved?

  • More than 75 percent of children with divorced parents end up as happy and well adjusted as their counterparts with intact families (Hetherington & Kelly, 2002).

Hetherington, E., & Kelly, J. (2002). For Better or For Worse: Divorce Reconsidered. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

  • In a study in which 59 divorced families were interviewed for over 25 years, it was found that almost all children of divorce grow up with fears about being able to sustain a happy relationship. Therapy and supportive spouses can help, but according to the study, "growing into adulthood was definitely harder for them" (Wallerstein & Lewis, 2000).

Wallerstein, J., & Lewis, J. (2000). The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: A 25 Year Landmark Study. New York: Hyperion.

Advice for Parents Who are Divorcing

During a divorce, the upmost importance needs to be placed on the child. Children can often put the blame of the divorce on themselves. Putting the child’s needs first and having clear lines of communication is key to helping the process go smoothly. Their greatest needs are to feel loved and accepted (Prokop, 1986, pp. 3-15).

Prokop, M. S. (1986). Divorce happens to the nicest kids: A self help book for children (3–15), parents, and counselors (rev.) Alegra House Publishers, Warren, OH.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619659933?accountid=15182

Things to Do During a Divorce

  • Put your children's needs first.
  • Communicate clearly with your children.
  • Communicate with your ex regarding child rearing decisions.
  • Decide that your children will not come from a broken home; they are just going to have two homes.
  • Agree on behavioral guidelines and boundaries

Things Not to Do During a Divorce

  • Put your kids in the middle.
  • Sabotage your child's relationship with the other parent.
  • Fight in front of your children.
  • Undermine the other parent.
  • Use your child as a pawn to "get back at" or hurt your ex.

Children’s Needs

A child's psychological and emotional needs are greatly increased during and after a divorce. Children can experience emotions of fear, confusion and sadness as a result of this massive change in their lives. The impacts of divorce on children can have lasting negative affects (Sorrick, 1997).

In order make the transition the easiest for the children, parents need to keep in mind these key needs (McGraw, 2015):

Acceptance

  • Children can often personalize things and blame themselves. Children need to have freedom from guilt or blame for the divorce. They need to know that they are important and that they are not the reason for the divorce. During a divorce, a child’s self-concept and sense of belonging is more fragile than normal

Assurance of safety

  • Although the family is going through a major change, the children need to know and feel like they are still protected and deeply cared for.

Need for structure

  • While the family structure is falling apart, a child needs reassurance and routines to help ease the divorce process. They need to feel the same care, love and support they are normally shown.

Need to let kids be kids

  • The children cannot be placed in the middle of the divorce. They should not be given the job of healing your pain or have to deal with adult issues and stress.

Effects of Divorce

Ted Talk Video on Impact of Divorce on Children.

Professor Afifi surveyed her students about divorce and studied it's effects on them. Most of them spoke about the difficulty of being in a home with consistent arguments between their parents. Her research led her to the conclusion that children react differently to divorce, depending upon the situation. There are both short-term and long-term psychological effects on children from homes of divorce or parental conflict. Children have closer relationships to their parents nowadays compared to past decades, so divorce hurts more because they feel torn between the two. She claims that the main factor about how children react to divorce is parental conflict. Children from families with conflicting parents who don't get divorced statistically face the most difficulties. Children who don't see the divorce coming face the second most difficulties. She studied the psychological responses children had to divorce and parental conflict; primarily checking level of stress hormones. This video is a useful resource due to the amount of case-studies and personal stories it includes.

Afifi, T. (2012, May 20). The Impact of Divorce on Children. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKcNyfXbQzQ

Negative Effects of Divorce

Negative effects of divorce on children from the point of view of children.

According to Oppawsky (2000), divorces are life-altering events that deeply affect everyone involved, especially children. Compelling research has been conducted that provides evidence of divorce having negative effects on children. Depending on age and sex, every child of divorce will display different patterns of behavior in response to the divorce. It is extremely vital that every parent going through divorce be aware of the consequences their divorce has on their children and take all the steps necessary to either avoid or alleviate any stresses it may cause to their children. If parents are unable to find a way to move on and cope with their grief, then they may ultimately ruin their children's lives. Along with the emotional pain, suffering and possible depression, insecurities can also develop within children. If these insecurities perpetuate, children may develop anxiety. Furthermore, when children experience a divorce at an early age, the probability of them also going through a divorce when they are older doubles.

Oppawsky, J. (2000). Parental bickering, screaming, and fighting: Etiology of the most negative effects of divorce on children from the view of the children. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 32, 141-147.
doi:10.1300/J087v32n03_09

Effects of inter-parental conflict on child.

In this study, the role that inter-parental conflict plays on a child's feeling of attachment security was examined. Attachment security is the level of ease in which a person is able to trust in the support and stability of an interpersonal relationship. The different levels of attachment and feelings of security that a child has towards their mother and father is also observed. The information in this study is useful because it goes into detail on one of the negative effects that parental conflict and romantic un-attachment has on children.

Laurent, H. K., Kim, H. K., & Capaldi, D. M. (2008). Prospective effects of interparental conflict on child attachment security and the moderating role of parents' romantic attachment. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(3), 377-388. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.3.377

Adult children of divorce: confused love seekers.

In this study, Piorkowski takes a look at the struggles that adult children of divorce have with finding and maintaining lasting relationships of their own. Being first-hand witnesses to the problems that their parents went through, they are easily swayed to consider divorce when unhappiness surfaces in the relationship. Since they have no example of a stable romantic relationship from their parents, they tend to make poor choices in romantic partners.

Piorkowski, G. K. (2008). Adult children of divorce: Confused love seekers Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/621634728?accountid=15182

Review of a secure base: parent-child attachment and healthy human development.

In this book, attachment theory and the benefits to mental health through strong emotional ties is examined. The role of a child's attachment levels to parents on the development of their personality is also discussed. The proper development of a child's personality is crucial to their potential to build strong and healthy future relationships. Divorce and parental conflict negatively impact a child's ability to attach to their parents, which makes this book a useful resource.

Review of A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. (1991). PsycCRITIQUES, 36(10), 906. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/621209714?accountid=15182

Positive Effects of Divorce

Positive effects of divorce on children from the point of view of children.

This article by Rosen (1977) has useful information about why it is better for children that their parents get divorced instead of staying together in an unhappy marriage. Data found in this research strongly suggests that the divorce solely would not cause disturbance in children.However, disturbance in the children is associated with the turbulence of divorce.In order to find date, 92 children between 9-28 years old were interviewed. Children were asked to express their feeling about their experience during living with both parents and after divorce. The result revealed that most of these children preferred that their parents not to live together in conflict . It was concluded that it was the tensions and hostilities in the marriage rather than the divorce that had disturbed them most. It is also discovered that children of divorce do not have a problem later in their lives for marriage. These articles provides many examples that children were happier and more relax after their parental divorce (Rosen, 1977).

Rosen, R. (1977). Children of divorce: What they feel about access and other aspects of the divorce experience. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology., 6, 24-27. doi:10.1080/15374417709532756

Stability in family after divorce does not cause crime commitment of children.

This article provides information about the relation between family instability and crime. Data from a sample of 410 Danish Cohort males, ages 19-21 were interpreted. Analyses evaluated the association of divorce with later criminal behavior in children. It also examined post divorce instability as a potential predictor of criminal involvement. Analysis showed when divorce is followed by an unstable family, it leads to increased risk of criminal behavior. It is also found that family instability is one of the main reasons for crime commitment of children in adolescence. If the divorce is followed by stability in family,it would not lead to a high risk of criminal involvement . It is also found that socioeconomic status affect children to commit crime (Mednick, 1990).

Mednick, R. B., Baker, R. L., Carothers, L. E. (1990). Patterns of family instability and crime: the association of timing of the family's disruption with subsequent adolescent and young adult criminality. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 19, 201-220. doi: 10.1007/BF01537887

Conflict is the main cause of depression in children not the divorce.

"Parental Divorce and Child mental Health Trajectories” shows that children whose parents got divorced after a long term conflicts have higher anxiety/depression and mental health problems than the others. This study involved a sample of Canadian children of ages 4–7 that living with both of their parents at initial interview. In this experiment, the mental health of children whose parents remain married with those whose parents’ divorces were compared. The article suggests that children whose parents later divorce, even before marital breakup, exhibit higher levels of anxiety/ depression and antisocial behavior than other children even those that their parents divorced early with out conflict . As a result, they found that divorce specifically does not lead to mental health issues in children. It is the parental conflicts that are significantly damaging (Strohschein, 2005).

Strohschein, L. (2005). Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1286-1300. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00217

Can Unhappy Marriage Become Happy Again?

While divorce is necessary in some cases, some marriage can be repaired. It is found that nationally about13%married individuals say that they have seriously thought about divorcing their spouse recently. However, 94% of married individuals who said that their marriage at some point was in trouble said there were happy that they stayed together. Couples can improve their relationship by reading books or another resources. Others participate in marriage education classes to improve their relationship skills. Still others seek counseling from professional counselors or therapists, or seek help from a trusted religious guide. Based on this research, it is a good idea that couples stay together for a while and try to solve their issues before they want to divorce.

Wallerstein, J. S. (n.d.). Can unhappy marriage become happy again? How?. Retrieved from http://www.divorce.usu.edu/files/uploads/lesson2.pdf

Conclusion

According to Wallerstein, divorce generally puts children at a greater risk for experiencing a variety of psychological issues. However, a majority of the children of divorce do not experience any serious issues; most children are strong and resilient enough to accept the situation and go on with their life. Most of their lifestyles return to
 a pretty normal state 2–3 years after the divorce. The problems children of divorce may experience are often present even before the divorce since it is the result of conflict between parents, low amounts of attention from parents, depression, or other related factors. Children in a high-conflict marriage situation with parents who decide to divorce are better off than those children with parents who stay married, and continue to experience high levels of conflict. In comparison, children in low-conflict marriage situations are generally worse off when their parents divorce, compared to children with parents who stay married and keep trying to solve their problems. In conclusion, there is not an easy answer to the question "Should you really stay together for the kids?", since so many factors have an influence on the situation.

Wallerstein, J. S. (n.d.). What are the possible consequences of divorce for children. Retrieved from http://www.divorce.usu.edu/files/uploads/Lesson5.pdf

References

About Dr. Phil. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.drphil.com/shows/page/bio/

Afifi, T. (2012, May 20). The Impact of Divorce on Children. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKcNyfXbQzQ

Ellis, E. M. (2000). Divorce wars: Interventions with families in conflict American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10359-000

Gandelman, Polina. (2009). The effects of divorce on children. Retrieved from the ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (MAI 1470847)

Hetherington, E., & Kelly, J. (2002). For Better or For Worse: Divorce Reconsidered. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Knoester, C., & Booth, A. (2000). Barriers to divorce: When are they effective? When are they not? Journal of Family Issues, 21(1), 78-99.
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251300021001004

Laurent, H. K., Kim, H. K., & Capaldi, D. M. (2008). Prospective effects of interparental conflict on child attachment security and the moderating role of parents' romantic attachment. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(3), 377-388. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.3.377

Litwin, G. (2002, Aug 20). Unhappily Ever After. Times - Colonist. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/345888945?accountid=15182

Marriage. (n. d). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/Dictionary.com Unabridged.

Marriage and Divorce Statistics by Culture. (2015, April13). Retrieved from
http://www.healthymarriageinfo.org/research-and-policy/marriage-facts/culture/index.aspx

Matthews, D. W. (1887) . Long term effects of divorce on children. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.
Retrieved from: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs482.pdf

McGraw, P. (2015, April 08). I’ve Divorced My Ex Twice, but I’m Still in Love. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Ts1TIUgALA

McGraw, P. (2010, June 22). Are You Ready For A Divorce? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLrt7WUFFu0

Mednick, R. B., Baker, R. L., Carothers, L. E. (1990). Patterns of family instability and crime: the association of timing of the family's disruption with subsequent adolescent and young adult criminality. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 19, 201-220. doi: 10.1007/BF01537887

Meltzer, S. (2011). Our divorce culture: A durkheimian perspective. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 52(3), 147-163. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10502556.2011.556962

Oppawsky, J. (2000). Parental bickering, screaming, and fighting: Etiology of the most negative effects of divorce on children from the view of the children. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 32(3-4), 141-147.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619447448?accountid=15182

Prokop, M. S. (1986). Divorce happens to the nicest kids: A self help book for children (3–15), parents, and counselors (rev.) Alegra House Publishers, Warren, OH.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619659933?accountid=15182

Review of A Secure Base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. (1991). PsycCRITIQUES, 36(10), 906. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/621209714?accountid=15182

Rosen, R. (1977). Children of divorce: What they feel about access and other aspects of the divorce experience. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology., 6, 24-27. doi:10.1080/15374417709532756

Sorrick, J. (1997). Divorce and children's interests (Order No. AAM9708305). Available from PsycINFO. (619250930; 1997-95008-223).
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619250930?accountid=15182

Strohschein, L. (2005). Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1286-1300. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00217

Wallerstein, J., & Lewis, J. (2000). The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: A 25 Year Landmark Study. New York: Hyperion.

Wallerstein, J. S. (n.d.). What are the possible consequences of divorce for children. Retrieved from http://www.divorce.usu.edu/files/uploads/Lesson5.pdf

When love and culture clash | Prospect Magazine. (2015, April13). Retrieved from http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/features/cross-border-marriage-divorce

When Marriages Start To Fail.(2015, April13). Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2014/05/31/south-asians-divorce-taboo_n_4178424.html

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