Sana Mira Lexie Oanh Vishal

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Is Beauty a Bottom-Up or a Top-Down Process?

There is a lot of discussion about beauty and attractiveness, with a popular phrase "beauty is in the eye of the beholder" or "beauty is only skin deep." However, many studies across human cultures and non-human groups, attractiveness has been based on similar physical traits. In non-humans, colour of fur, feathers, and body size have been noted to be relevant in choosing a mate.[1]

1. Little, A. C., & Perrett, D. I. (2002). Putting beauty back in the eye of the beholder. The Psychologist, 15(1), 28-32. Retrieved from
2. Jankowiak, William, Gray, Peter B., Hattman, Kelly (2008). Globalizing Evolution: Female Choice, Nationality, and Perception of Sexual Beauty in China. Cross-Cultural Research, 42, 248-269. doi: 10.1177/1069397108317672
3. Rhodes, G., Proffitt, F., Grady, J. M., & Sumich, A. (1998). Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5(4), 659-669. Retrieved from
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