Captured Soldiers Who Collaborate Vs. Those Who Resist

Dear Writer,
We are thankful to have received this opportunity in regards to researching for your next bestselling booking. The following webpage will consist of information that will guideline the content within your research novel. This webpage will demonstrate what we to believe to be an excellent source of materials for your novel on captured Soldiers Who Collaborate Vs. those Who Resisted. We introduce the topic with necessary definitions, Psyche of Captured Soldiers, Psych of collaborating soldiers vs. psych of resisting soldiers: Moral Foundations, Characteristics and Factors Associated with Collaboration and Resistance. As well as information regarding cases such as; previous Captives & Incidents, Experiments on Captivity and Conformity, and finally recovery. We want to thank you for giving us this opportunity and wish you luck during the writing process.

All the best,
Ikran, Amran, Juweria and Ossab

Definitions


Prisoner of War (POW): a person who is captured and held by an enemy during war, especially a member of the armed forces.

Missing In Action (MIA): a member of the armed forces whose whereabouts following a combat mission are unknown and whose death cannot be established beyond reasonable doubt.

Collaborationism: the act of cooperating with the enemy against one's country in wartime.

AWOL: absent from one's post but without intent to desert.

Deserter: a member of the arms forces who leaves without intent to return.

Contextual Agency: The ability for one to have free will.

Dopamine: A neurotransmitter found in the brain that controls emotions.

Serotonin: A neurotransmitter found in the brain that controls sleep, depression and memory.

Soldiers: One who serves in an army. An enlisted person or a noncommissioned officer; and active, loyal, or militant follower of an organization.

Hypnosis: An artificially induced altered state of consciousness, characterized by heightened suggestibility and receptivity to direction. A sleep-like condition.

Code of Conduct: code of conduct - a set of conventional principles and expectations that are considered binding on any person who is a member of a particular group.
Interrogation: the technique, practice, or an instance of interrogating. A question or query.

Resistance: the act or power of resisting, opposing, or withstanding. The opposition offered by one thing, force, etc., to another.

PTSD: After experiencing a severe trauma or life-threatening event, many military veterans develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sometimes known as shell shock or combat stress.

Recovery: an act of recovering. The regaining of or possibility of regaining something lost or taken away.

Counselling: professional guidance in resolving personal conflicts and emotional problems.

Captured: To take captive, as by force or craft; seize. To gain possession or control of, a person or place.

Menticide: The psychological abuse founded in the Korean War to mentally break the captured militants.

Psyche of Captured Soldiers


“If I am captured I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and to aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.”

On this website we found an explanation of the code of conduct, that can provided a better understandings to why some captives would resist the enemy. In six brief Articles, found on this website it addresses situations and decision that all military personnel could encounter. This information is information useful to soldiers and the POWs in their efforts to survive honorably while resisting their captor's efforts to exploit them to the advantage of the enemy's cause and their own disadvantage. Such survival and resistance requires varying degrees of knowledge of the meaning of the six Articles of the Code of conduct. The code of conduct is the holy grail of the military it’s the foundation of building a loyal and resilient army. This article also states that the code of conduct makes sure that all militants are fully aware of the effects on the government and morale, as well as the possible legal consequences, of accepting a favor from the enemy that results in gaining benefits or privileges not available to all POWs. Such benefits and privileges include acceptance of release before the release of sick or wounded fellow soldiers or those who have been in captivity longer. Special favors include improved food, recreation, and living conditions not available to other captives. This article provides more information on the importance of the militant to resist the enemy.The militant has to be aware that the environment there in now is just an extension of the battlefield. The solider must be prepared for this fact.

Powers, R. (2013, April 8). U.S. Military Code of Conduct Rules for Prisoners of War. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from usmilitary.about.com/od/justicelawlegislation/a/codeofconduct1.htm

Hypnosis as a forum that could be used on soldiers that can help militants protects classified information away from the enemy when captive. Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness characterized by an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion (Division 30 of the American Psychological Association). Hypnosis as a defense against interrogation, whether to prevent hypnosis by captors, to condition against stress and pain, or to create amnesia for sensitive information, would function as a false oppressive tool with the serious disadvantage of diminishing the captive's mastery of the situation. Finally, the hypnotic situation, rather than hypnosis itself, seems likely to be a more effective instrument in interrogation. Thus, it appears there might be a increases percent of being able to put the individual in a trance based on his or her relationship with the person doing the trance. Daze can be induced in resistant subjects. It may be possible to hypnotize a person without his being aware of it, but this would require a positive relationship between hypnotist and subject not likely to be found in the interrogation setting. Hypnosis is something seen as a pseudoscience to many, so it’s very doubtful that proscribed behavior call be induced against the subject's wishes. The evidence also shows that information gained during hypnosis need doesn’t have to be accurate and may in fact contain untruths, despite hypnotic suggestions to the contrary.

Hypnosis in Interrogation. (2011, August 4). Retrieved April 03, 2015, from www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol4no1/html/v04i1a05p_0001.htm

Psych of collaborating soldiers vs. psych of resisting soldiers:

The USA and Canada for example army is not mandatory for all citizens, individual join on their own free will making them more loyal and resistant to captives efforts to exploit information out them. How about the soldiers that are fully aware of the consequence of doing the sated acts and still cooperate with the enemy, the reason could be that the person putting his needs first and are not in the right state of mind to be thinking about consequence of going against the code of conduct. It’s an innate ability with in all of us to move towards a less state of pain, some people are better at resisting the pain, or how Freud would put it delay wish fulfillment.
Hypnosis is another interesting element that can explain the difference between militants that resisted the enemy and those who cooperated they can be under the influence of a trance , and are unable to even provided information that was meant to be kept a secret from the enemy. The enemy themselves can cause the militant to be in trance by gaining a positive relationship with the captive by treating them kindly , once they gain the militants trust they can them manipulate them in giving information out. Another difference between the militants is that the captive can use love ones as a threat to the militants to give out information and cooperate, or cause harm to their fellow militants so they will pass on more information. Thus, the difference between militants that cooperate and those who resist are several of things code of contact, personal reasons, and practice like hypnosis.

Moral Foundations:

The moral foundation by Haidt we believe is a good start to understanding the difference between militants who resist vs. the ones that cooperated. Haidt explains the Moral foundation as being the nature that provides a first draft, which experience then revises… . “Built-in” does not mean unpalatable; it means “organized in advance of experience. “The first foundation that would explain the difference between the two militants would be The Loyalty/betrayal foundation which is evolved in response to the adaptive challenge of forming and maintaining coalitions. It makes us sensitive to signs that another person is (or is not) a team player. So in this case the militant isn’t loyal to his or her government for numerous reasons. One reason could be that the militant did not join the military on his or her own will but it was force upon them. This creates a less loyal solider and easy for him to cooperate with the enemy to save his or her own life, hence a non-team player. The loyal/betrayal foundation makes us trust and reward such people, and it makes us want to hurt, ostracize, or even kill those who betray us or our group. For millions of years our ancestors formed and maintained alliances that could fend off challenges and attacks from rival groups (countries). We are the descendants of successful tribalists. Psychological systems actually contribute to real tribalism and triumph in intergroup competition. The Loyalty/betrayal foundation is just a part of our innate training in military for meeting the adaptive challenge of forming unified coalitions within the military. The militant first must find a sense of belonging, attachment and sense of proud in his or her country. The original trigger for the Loyalty foundation is anything that tells you who is a team player (the individual that resisted) and who is a traitor, particularly when your country is fighting with other countries. Humans tend to have this natural draw towards tribalism so much; we seek out ways to form soldiers and army that can fight just for their country because they want too not because they ought to. Much of the psychology of loyalty, which is key to having devoted soldier’s that will resist their captive and not relay classified information, is about expanding the current triggers of the Loyalty foundation so that militants can have the pleasures of binding themselves together to purse victory for their nation.

Haidt, J. (2012). Chapter 7. In The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion (1st ed., Vol. 1, p. 538). New York: Pantheon Books.

Characteristics

Wars and battles are forever changing but the make-up of the ideal soldier is everlasting. Militants must be strong, wise, and strategic; they must be capable to win the battles and essentially the war itself. The most notable Military General, General Sun Tzu of the Chinese Military wrote a book training future militants for the reigning King of China. In the book, The Art of War, Tzu chronicles his comprehensive training for the Chinese army. The Art of War, is quintessentially the handbook for war as it details the essentials for war and how to go about winning each battle. Tzu creates a guideline for what is necessary for a soldier to become a leader and the best militant. The characteristics and traits that Tzu claims makes a soldier are as follows:

Wise & Strategic:

Tzu emphasizes on these two traits as they affect the individuals critical thinking and analysis of situations. These traits can make the difference of a soldier who is mentally strong enough to withstand menticide, versus one who crumbles under the stress. Being able to analyze a situation and efficiently respond based on the enemies moves.

Trustworthiness:

Tzu speaks on trusting yourself and trusting others. He speaks on trust being a cardinal trait when it comes to winning a work. Teamwork is essential in winning the battle and furthermore the war

Love:

Much like trust, Tzu says love is important and you should respect and love yourself as much as your fellow militants.

Valour:

Courage is a key trait for a militant. Without valor one can not be a militant. One must be able to risk their life for their fellow soldiers and moreso their country. They must be able to fight on behalf of their country and must be able to withstand the enemy in their attempts to torture them during captivity.

Strict & Disciplined:

The military is synonymous with discipline. Within their core beliefs is the ability to restrain oneself from temptations and be able to live on the bare minimum in case of captivity.

Sun, B., & Giles, L. (1999). Sun Tzu on the art of war the oldest military treatise in the world. Champaign, Ill.: Project Gutenberg.

Factors Associated With Collaboration and Resistance:

The Article titled ‘UAE Issues Compulsory Military Service Law for All Emirati Men’ talks about how the president of the United Arab Emirates implemented a new policy which is the fact that it is compulsory for all men from the UAE to join the Military. The president has now commanded that all males from the age of 18-30 must enlist in the military. He has also stated that the required time span is 9 months of service however for those who haven’t received a high school diploma it will be two years. Although this may be effective in creating for a safer environment this new law could in fact cause for the Emirati men to feel a sense of hatred for their country. In places like Canada and America it is not required for people to enlist in the army, but rather they have a sense of contextual agency. In places where one is not forced into risking their life they would have a greater drive to protect and serve their country because they voluntarily joined the military. When one is forcefully thrown into such a situation they would more than likely disregard any form of nationalism and it could cause for them to collaborate with the enemy if the situation were to ever arise.

Bayoumy, Yara. (2014, June 07) UAE issues compulsory military service law for all emirati men. Chicago: Tribune. Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://goo.gl/SEpWNB

During the Korean War, American prisoners of war fell into three categories: participators, resisters and middle men. During this study, the resister group was found to contain a smaller group of men with IQs that are considered below average (an IQ below 90, as it's measured by the AGCT) than the participators; 35% of the resisters vs. 45% of the participators. Also, resisters were typically found to have had more prior experience with Foreign Service in the army than the two other categories of POW. In terms of concern for and connecting with fellow POW, the participators were least likely to show concern; 60% showed little to no care at all, and while the resisters felt more concern towards other resisters, they connected with other resisters and even formed groups to support each other. American POW were put in the position to make a very hard choice for themselves – either resist and face the consequences, or collaborate with the enemy and get off easy, and this decision was individualistic. Participators, resisters and middle men were all looking to survive and because of their differences, their means to achieve survival varied.

Segal, J. (1957). Correlates of collaboration and resistance behavior among U.S. army POW's in korea. Journal of Social Issues,13(3), 31-40. Retrieved from http://goo.gl/qOc0pG

Previous Captives & Incidents


Nuremberg Trials:

In the article titled ‘The First Nuremberg Trial’, Doctor Carmelo Lisciotto thoroughly goes through the events which took place at the Nuremberg trials. This article touches on points such as the defendants, indictment and the verdict. The trial took almost a year to conclude, it began on November the 20th 1945 and ended on October 1st, 1946. The Nuremberg trials took place in Nurnberg’s palace of justice because it was still intact from the previous warfare and because it was ‘the city of party allies.’ the defendants were tried for crimes against humanity, crimes against peace and war crimes. However, the majority of the defendants claimed ‘Befehl ist Befehl’ which can loosely be translated to ‘orders are orders’. What this meant was that they believed they should have plead not guilty because they were simply following superior orders. Although the events which took place were unforgivable, what this meant was that these captured war criminals were going against their Country by condemning the actions which they and the majority of their society deemed as a norm. By these men putting the blame on their superiors, they in return collaborated with their capturers by admitting that the atrocities which occurred was simply because their country as a whole rather than them as an individual. Although they betrayed their country’s beliefs at the time those men believed it was the best decision to take as a way to fend for their lives.

Lisciotto, Carmello. (2007) The 1st nuremberg trial. New York: H.E.A.R.T. Retrieved April 09, 2015, from www.holocaustresearchproject.org/trials/nurnbergtrial.html

Vietnam War:

The Vietnam War was a proxy war during the Cold War era, it occurred from November 1st, 1955 to April 30th, 1975 between communist and anti-Communist forces. During the Vietnam War, about 1,350 Americans soldiers were listed either prisoners of war or missing in action. However, 591 of them were returned during Operation Homecoming. After the war, quite a few American soldiers were accused of collaborating and cooperating with the enemy while detained. Though many forms of physical and psychological torture, malnutrition and captivity injures could have caused some to involuntarily break, others were quick to betray their country to avoid this.

King, L. A., King, D. W., Schuster, J., Park, C. L., Moore, J. L., Kaloupek, D. G., & Keane, T. M. (2011). Captivity stressors and mental health consequences among repatriated U.S. navy, army, and marine vietnam-era prisoners of war. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(4), 412-420. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021411

John Mccain:

John McCain was the Republican presidential nominee in the 2008 presidential election, he's also a United States senator from Arizona. As a member of the United States Navy during the Vietnam War, he was captured by the Northern Vietnamese in 1967. John McCain, who was captured in North Vietnam for more than five years, is also someone who has been accused by various sources of being a collaborator with the enemy during the Vietnam War, but there isn't much evidence to prove that claim. In his book, ‘Faith of My Fathers’ he describes the torture POW went through while detained, "The guards discovered Mike's flag one afternoon during a routine inspection and confiscated it. They returned that evening and took Mike outside. For our benefit as much as Mike's they beat him severely, just outside our cell, puncturing his eardrum and breaking several of his ribs.” He also expresses the shame he felt for cooperating with the enemy. Within three days of being captured, McCain said that he began cooperating with the North Vietnamese, and helped them by providing information about his aircraft. However, many have challenged his narrative because supposedly, unlike most prisoner of war, they claim he wasn't tortured — therefore, did not even need to cooperate. According to a retired army colonel, Earl Hopper, McCain provided his captors with “highly classified information, the most important of which was the package routes, which were routes used to bomb North Vietnam. He gave in detail the altitude they were flying, the direction, if they made a turn… he gave them what primary targets the United States was interested in”.

Giraldi, P. (2013, June 1). John McCain: War Hero or Something Less? Retrieved April 03, 2015, from globalresearch.ca/john-mccain-war-hero-or-something-less/5337240

McCain, J., & Salter, M. (1999). Faith of My Fathers. New York: Random House.

Robert R. Garwood:

Robert R. Garwood was a member of the United States Marines, stationed in Southern Vietnam when he was captured. He known for being a POW who later collaborated with the enemy. And in 1998, the Department of Defense changed his status from being a returnee, to being AWOL/Deserter/Collaborator. Garwood was later accused of violating military law and the military code of conduct, because he collaborated with the Northern Vietnamese while he was a POW and assaulted a fellow American prisoner of war. He plead insanity, claiming that he was brainwashed into cooperating with the Northern Vietnamese.

Rawls, W. (1981, Feb 05). MARINE CORPS JURY GETS GARWOOD CASE; ex-vietnam prisoner is accused of collaborating with enemy - he has pleaded insanity. New York Times Retrieved from http://goo.gl/kLnWlU

Michael Durant:

One of the most notable failures from the United States of America was during the Black Hawk Down Mission. In the early 1990’s with the fall of the Somali Nation, war lords and other criminals ruled the nation. In order to save the country from its subsequent failures the UN backed by the U.S.A intervened in order to put some structure into the country which evidently did not work in the slightest. Michael Durant, a militant, was captured for a little less than a week and was held for ransom. Unlike the afore mentioned militants who cracked under pressure, Durant presented cognitive dissonance by visualizing himself in a different state than he was currently in. With a broken femur and shots to his left arm and leg, Durant never cracked under the pressure and was successfully traded and was rescued. The only words uttered in resonse to the interrogation the Somali militants did was: “Innocent people being killed is not good”. Michael Durant displayed the characteristics and traits that Sun Tzu claim depicts the perfect leader/militant.

Bowden, M. (1999). Black Hawk down: A story of modern war. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Experiments on Captivity and Conformity


Psychology is quintessentially the most compressive dialogue amongst the field of science. Psychology builds from previous errors and essentially aims to delve into the complex human mind and body. Within your research book it would be efficient to give readers a look into different ways that menticide can take place. It would be beneficial to look at other ways that people can effect one’s mental states and consequently change one’s traits; the traits aforementioned will be analyzed as we aim to connect this information to decisions made by militants. Below are experiments done within the past century that aim to prove the reasoning for the difference between corroborating militants and resisting militants:

Milgram Experiment:

Milgram placed a number of participants in the experiment to test ones obedience to authority. In the experiment the subjects were placed into a room and told that they were teachers while their partner was the learner however the learner was secretly Milgrams accomplice to help in the execution of the experiment. The learner was placed into a room while the teacher was in charge of the control panel which would in essence, send electric shocks to the learner whenever the learner would get a question wrong. The electric shocks varied from 15 volts to 450 volts. Whenever the learner would get a question wrong the teacher was instructed to raise the voltage. Surprisingly, 68% of the participants carried out the experiment to the highest voltage while the other 32% went to 300 volts. Milgrams experiment gives a theory as to why some individuals continue to resist or collaborate with the enemy. Milgram’s experiment depicts obedience which is a desired trait in the military. This showcases that individuals would follow the “code of conduct” within the military and would obey the rule of not collaborating with the enemy in order to ensure winning the war.

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper & Row.

Asch Experiment:

Conformity is one of the least admired traits of a militant. Each individual should be different and should be self-assured in all their actions. The Asch experiment depicted whether individuals would be confident with their answers and whether or not external stimuli and social pressure would affect ones decisions. The subjects were given three different lines to choose from-one obviously being the longest- and were told to choose the longest line. The subject was overwhelmed by the about of people in on the experiment who instead of choosing the correct line – A,B or C- they chose the shortest. After twelve critical trials, thirty percent of the subjects proved to have conformed much greater than the eighty percent who were self-assured. This experiment correlates to the soldiers who collaborate with the enemy as they do not trust in themselves and therefore do not trust in their team to rescue them during their captivity.

Recovery


The militants that resisted or cooperated with the enemy would both need to go through the recovery and rehabilitation process so that the can once again become average member of society. Militants that are captured are exposed to psychological brainwash form their captives. Militants are exposure to traumatic combat and operational experiences affects service members and veterans spiritually, psychologically, biologically, and socially. Recovery for militants that resisted and ones that collaborated is a must so each can reach salivation and peace.
There are several combat and recovery programs for militants such as: the militant recovery program, which provides the Combat Stress Recovery Program (CSRP) that addresses the mental health and cognitive needs of warriors returning from war. CSRP provides services at key stages during a warrior's readjustment process.

Combat Stress Recovery Program. (2013, March 3). Retrieved April 01, 2015, from www.woundedwarriorproject.org/programs/combat-stress-recovery-program.aspx

What is PTSD?

After experiencing a severe trauma or life-threatening event, many military veterans develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sometimes known as shell shock or combat stress. Close to 30 percent of Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans treated at V.A. hospitals and clinics have been diagnosed with PTSD. For veterans who saw combat or have been captured/tortured, the numbers are even higher, with one Pew Research Center report showing a 49% rate of PTSD.
Both militants who seem to work with the enemy and those who resisted to the very end seem to develop but not always PTSD and others don’t, but we do know that the incidence goes up with the number of tours and the amount of combat you experienced. This isn’t surprising, considering many symptoms of PTSD—like hyper vigilance, hyperawareness, and adrenaline-quick reflexes—helped you survive when you were deployed. It’s only now that you’re backing home that these responses are inappropriate.

Make The Connection. (2014, March 18). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from maketheconnection.net/conditions/ptsd

The road to PTSD recovery:
Step 1: Connect with others

PTSD can leave you feeling disconnected and withdrawn. But instead of isolating yourself, make an effort to invest in your personal relationships. Social interaction with people who care about you is a great stress reliever and one of the most effective ways to calm your nervous system when you’re in a state of hyper arousal or feeling anxious, irritable, or on edge.

The first step for the militant is find someone you can connect with face to face, someone you can talk to for an uninterrupted period of time, someone who will listen to you without judging, criticizing, or continually being distracted. That person may be your significant other, a family member, one of your buddies from the service, or a civilian friend.

Soldiers both whom resisted their captive or cooperated may feel like the civilians in their life can’t understand you since they don't know what it's like to be in the military or to have seen the things you did. But people don't have to have gone through the exact same experiences to understand and relate to painful emotions and be able to offer support. What matters is that the person the soldiers are turning to cares about you, is a good listener, and is able to be there for you as a source of strength and comfort. If they don’t feel ready to open up about the details of what happened, that's perfectly okay. You can talk about how you feel without going into a blow-by-blow account of events. Militants can also tell the other person what you need or what they can do to help, whether it's just sitting with you, listening, or doing something practical. Comfort comes from someone else understanding your emotional experience. Find that people who care about the victims welcome the opportunity to help. Listening is not a burden for them but an opportunity. Don't: keep quiet because you don’t want to upset others, keep quiet because you’re worried about being a burden, assume that others don’t want to listen, wait until you’re so stressed and exhausted that you can’t benefit from help. (Source: National Center for PTSD)

Step 2: Calm your overstimulated nervous system

The benefits of the great outdoors spending time in nature and pursuing outdoor activities like hiking, camping, mountain biking, rock climbing and skiing can help veterans cope with PTSD symptoms and transition back into civilian life. Focusing on outdoor activities can also help challenge your sense of vulnerability and help militant’s nervous system become unstuck and move on from the traumatic event they experienced. PTSD overstimulated theses victims’ nervous system, leaving you amped up and on high alert all the time. It’s important that those militants that resisted and cooperate to start connecting with people close to then is a great way to calm them, it’s not always practical to have a buddy close by. In these cases, they can use their senses to quickly calm their nervous system. Just as loud noises, certain smells, or the feel of sand in their clothes, for example, can instantly transport them back to the trauma of a combat zone, so too can sensory input—sights, sounds, tastes, smells, etc.—quickly calm militants down. The key is to find the sensory input that works for both victims.

Step 3: Take care of your body

The symptoms of PTSD can be hard on the body both militants exposed to their captive. The effects include insomnia, fatigue, irritability, angry outbursts, concentration problems, and jumpiness. Eventually, both militants health will suffer. That’s why, if both militants have PTSD, one of the best things you can do is care for your body. That means putting a priority on sleep, exercise, healthy food, and relaxing activities. They may find it very difficult to relax at first. In fact, it’s common for veterans to be drawn to activities and behaviors that pump up adrenaline. After being in a combat zone, that’s what feels normal. Without the rush, both militants feel strange or even dead inside. Things they may turn to for that familiar adrenaline rush include energy drinks, coffee, stimulant drugs, cigarettes (even if you’ve never smoked before), violent video games, action and horror movies, and daredevil sports. If militants recognize these urges for what they are, they can make better choices that will calm and care for their body and mind.

Step 4: Reconnect to what you feel

As militants with PTSD, it’s normal to want to avoid remembering or re-experiencing what went through. But the problem is that avoiding those memories doesn’t make them go away. Militants tend try to escape through fantasies, daydreams, excessive TV, video games, pornography, or drugs and alcohol, but the feelings associated with the trauma are still inside them. When they try to suppress them, the thoughts, images, and dreams can actually become more threatening and intrusive. It’s not helpful to obsess over disturbing thoughts and feelings. Sometimes all they need is to take a step back in order to take care of them, get through the day, and avoid re-traumatizing yourself. But to heal and move on, you’ll need to reconnect to what you feel. While this may seem like a terrifying step, reconnecting to militant’s feelings is the only way they will be able to experience joy in life again.

Step 5: Deal with flashbacks, nightmares, and intrusive thoughts

Militant both that cooperated or resisted might start having flash backs and intrusive thoughts of their captive. Flashbacks usually involve visual and auditory memories of the trauma you experienced. It feels as if the trauma is happening all over again so it’s very important for militants to accept and reassure you that their traumatic experience is not occurring in the present. Trauma specialists call this “dual awareness. “Dual awareness is the recognition that there is a difference between your “experiencing self” and your “observing self.” On the one hand there is your internal emotional reality: they feel as if the trauma is currently happening. On the other hand, you can look to your external environment and recognize that they are safe. Militants are aware that despite what their experiencing, the trauma happened in the past. It is not happening now.

Step 6: Work through militant’s guilt of cooperating with the enemy

Many militants with PTSD struggle with difficult emotions, including militant’s guilt of cooperating with enemy at the time even if it was for his her own survival. Guilt that they may have been the reason people were injured or killed, often your friends and comrades. In the heat of the moment, militants don’t have time to fully process these things as they happen. But later often when they have returned home these experiences come back to haunt them. Militants might ask themselves questions like: Why did I hurt my fellow soldier’s? Why did I let my country down with the information I give the enemy? Could I have done something differently to save them and me? They may end up blaming themselves for what happened and believing that their actions (or inability to act with courage) led to someone else’s death. Militants may feel like others deserved to live more than you — that you’re the one who should have died. This is survivor’s guilt of a militant that cooperated with the enemy.

PTSD in Military Veterans. (2012, October 11). Retrieved April 05, 2015, from www.helpguide.org/articles/ptsd-trauma/ptsd-in-veterans.htm

Counselling:

Counselling is a major part of the recovery process for both sides, the militants who collaborated with the enemy might still feel that his or her captive still has control over his or her life and can also suffer from loss of one’s identity. Captives usually torture and abuse their captives and put them in harsh living condition, they dehumanize them. That’s why counselling is a strong part of recovery to talk to someone and even have group discussion of what happen to them with other militants who went through similar situations. Counselling through this program has two levels of recovery one being challenging militants to think about goal-setting and understanding their "new normal." That new normal being that their captive doesn’t have control over them anymore , they are their own person can make their own choices to get that independence back .Many militants begin their journey with Project Odyssey , an outdoor, rehabilitative retreat that promotes peer connection, challenging outdoor experiences, and healing with other captured and abused veterans. The second level is to help assist the soldier’s to navigating mental health resources that help process their combat experience. Restore Warriors is an online tool that teaches the veterans more about the invisible wounds of war. Videos of fellow warriors sharing their own experience and strategies, self-assessment tools, and exercises provide valuable insight into readjustment challenges.

Treatments


This article talks about the different types of therapy there are for victims of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder involves anxiety, low dopamine levels and insomnia. In order to decrease the severity of PTSD one would have to either go through cognitive therapy, exposure therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. They could also resort to medication. Cognitive therapy teaches the victims of PTSD how to understand different situations and how to cope with frightening scenarios. Exposure therapy teaches them how to behave when harsh situations arise. Reprocessing is when they would help sooth bad memories. Some medications that victims of PTSD would be prescribed would be antidepressants, anti-anxiety pills and prasozin. These pills have high doses of serotonin in hopes of giving the patient more dopamine and less insomnia, anxiety and depression.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (1998) Treatments and drugs. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research: Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 12, 2015, from http://goo.gl/zJT2M1

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