Group Ik4

Anna Liza, Christine, Jasmine, Tali

Introduction

The research collected aims to answer the question “Is depression an issue in university students?” Our research is taken from multiple sources and it focuses on the main topic depression and university students but also on subtopics such as: types of depression, causes of depression, how university causes and worsens depression, how depression effects students and how students handle depression. Our research is focused on North American statistics however; we look slightly into depression in other cultures. Ultimately we believe that depression is an issue in university students, this page not only helps us explain to you and others why but it also helps us bring awareness to others about how depression can be combatted in and outside the school setting.

Overview of Depression

Students are often seen as being particularly at risk for developing major depression. More then 80% of students surveyed indicated they had experienced depression since coming to college and 32% had experienced suicidal ideation. As well, of Canadian first year undergrads 7% of men and 14% of women met the criteria for major depressive disorder. These numbers do not lessen in Graduate years where 11.3% of Graduate student had clinically significant depression. The criteria for diagnosis of depression includes depressed moods most of the day indicated by subjective report, or observations made by others, diminished intrest in pleasure in activities, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation observable by others, feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, diminished ability to concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death and dying.

Asmundson, G., Carleton, N. & Peluso, D. (2011) Depression symptoms in Canadian Psychology Graduate Students: Do Research Productivity, Funding and the Academic Advisory Relationship Play a Role? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/862781926/2AE9EEB000264E17PQ/6?accountid=15182

Maley, Michael (2006) The Relationship Between Relational Health and Depression and Social Anxiety in College Students Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/622023274/7DA6F79B6FC649B6PQ/1?accountid=15182

Types of Depression

There are several forms of depression,although many seem similar they are all different in their own way.

Major Depression is a type of depression in which individuals experience low moods and loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities. Symptoms are experienced most days and usually last for a time period of two weeks; symptoms interfere with all area of a person’s life including work and social relationships.

Dysthymic Depression is similar to major depression except for the fact that the symptoms are less severe. Dysthymic depression is long term and lasts for at least two years or longer.

Melancholia Depressionis a form of major depression. Physical symptoms are more noticeable in person’s actions such as moving slowly. People experience a loss of pleasure in everything or almost everything they do.

Psychotic Depression is a form of depression in which an individual loses touch with reality (psychosis) and they experience hallucinations and delusions and eventually become paranoid.

Cyclothymic Disorder is a milder form of bipolar except the symptoms are shorter less severe, and not as regular. Individuals experience chronic fluctuating moods over a period of at least two years.

Bipolar Disorder is a disorder that causes a shift in mood in an individual. It is is linked to family history and stress and conflict can trigger episodes and it is often misdiagnosed. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are very severe and affect almost every aspect of an individual’s life.


Bipolar Disorder. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder /index.shtml

Grohol, M. J.(2013, January 30). Types & symptoms of depression. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/types-and-symptoms-of-depression/000649


Measurements of Depression

There are several scales used to measure the symptoms of depression, which in turn lets the administrator of the test know the severity and possibly what type of depression an individual has. The scales and tests have to correspond with the DSM-IV.

DSM-IV

The DSM-IV is the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. This manual covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. It lists known causes of these disorders, statistics in terms of gender, age at onset, and prognosis as well as some research concerning optimal treatment approaches (cite). It is published by the American Psychiatric Association and all health professionals refer to this Manual when working with patients.

Types of Scales

“Scales vary in length, ranging from single-item measures to tools that include more than 100 statements. Some scales have been developed to measure depression in specific populations, such as postpartum women or patients with schizophrenia. Other scales have been developed to measure depression in specific age groups, such as adolescents and the elderly. Most scales were developed prior to the development of the criteria used in DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive disorder. These scales do not fully assess the major depressive disorder diagnostic criteria. In the past 15 years, several scales assessing the DSM-IV criteria have been developed and are considered reliable, valid measures of depression severity”.

There are two categories for measuring depression
1. Self Report questionnaires
2. Clinician administered measurements

Common Self Report Questionnaires include the:

Beck Depression Inventory -11 (BDI-11)
Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (Cudos)
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)
Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Test

The Beck Depression Inventory (BD1) test is one of the most popular tests used to measure depression. It measures depression symptoms and severity in persons age 13 and older, the test contains items that “Reflect the cognitive, affective, somatic, and vegetative symptoms of depression”. The test has twenty-one items and the score range is zero to sixty-three; 0-13 meaning mild depression and 29-63 meaning severe depression. This test is commonily used because it meets the DSM-IV standards.


Heffner, L.C. (n.d). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/disorders/dsm/#.VSgy5rpN3zI

Smarr, L.K. (2003). Measures of depression and depressive symptoms. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 55(5), 134-146. doi: 10.1002/art.11410

Zimmerman, M.(2011, September 9). Tools for depression: Standardized rating scales.Retrieved from http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/749921


Causes of Depression

There have been many debates over time about what the main cause for depression is, however the truth is that there is no exact answer. Depression can be triggered, it can be genetic, or it can be developed over time. The video below briefly explains the science of depression and why depression cannot be deduced to one specific cause.


How University Causes or Effects Depression

As discussed above there is not one exact cause for depression however students in a university environment are exposed to many factors that contribute to and trigger depression.

table.png

Table showing the self reported reasons for depression in students and what effects it had on them in terms of school work and social life.
Hass, S., Hysenbegasi, A. & Rowland, C. (2005) The Impact of Depression on Academic Productivity of University Students The Journal of Mental Health and Policy Economics Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/620979057/64E5753EDBB4440EPQ/1?accountid=15182

• Greater Academic Demands

Individuals who are highly critical of their work, as well as others, tend to be more depressed as they are constantly criticizing themselves, basing their self-worth on achievements (eg. Their grades) and require the approval and admiration of others. They often set unrealistic views. You can see how this works in a university setting where much of what you can do with your degree is dependent upon your grade if you wish to continue your education. An implication arising from this study is that perfectionism, and with it depression, can arise from the environment that a university creates.

Flett, G., Harvey, M., Hewitt, P. & Sherry, S. (2003) Perfectionism Dimensions, Perfectionistic attitudes, Dependent Attitudes and depression in Psychiatric Patients and University Students Journal of Counselling Psychology Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/614382444/16BBCE3D64E24375PQ/1?accountid=15182

- Work load increase
- Higher percentage on grades
- Different learning types
- More readings

• Being on your own in a new environment

Amongst the two highest rated reasons for wanting to commit suicide in one study showed social problems (romantic, friends, etc) and family problems were the main issues. The feelings associated with a suicide attempt were depression and loneliness/ isolation. The individuals who are depressed feel rejection, failure, self- blame and hopelessness. Many of them have difficulties with interpersonal relationships. A large problem for first year students in particular is that they must often make new social groups and relationship and lose may of the social groups that previously helped them.

Furr, S. & Westefeld, J. (1987) Suicide and Depression Among College Students Professional Psychology. Research and Practice Vol. 18, No. 2. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/614321028/44CCF5CB6ED54CA8PQ/26?accountid=15182

- Many students go away to school in a different city or even different country

• Financial Responsibilities

Money is often cited as an issue and as can be shown with the study on graduate students, this becomes an even greater concern when the individual I competing for scholarships and bursaries and funding which so much of their success depend upon.

Asmundson, G., Carleton, N. & Peluso, D. (2011) Depression symptoms in Canadian Psychology Graduate Students: Do Research Productivity, Funding and the Academic Advisory Relationship Play a Role? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/862781926/2AE9EEB000264E17PQ/6?accountid=15182

- Having to pay for tuition, books, residence
- Worrying about paying off student loans
- Interest on student loans

• Exposure to new people, ideas, and temptations

• Awareness of sexual identity and orientation

• Preparing for life after graduation
- The lack of jobs available to students right out of university
- Paying off student loans

• Drugs or withdrawal from drugs


Kerr, M. (2012, March 29). Depression and college students. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/depression/college-students#1


The Effects of Depression on Students

Health

The health affects depression has on university students includes physical symptoms such as a pounding heart; stomach cramps, loss of energy, as well as changes in appetite (Depression - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, 2013). Other symptoms include insomnia or excessive sleeping which interfere with daily routine and therefore have a major effect on the day-to-day life of a student (American Psychological Association, 2015) These health concerns are important to understand as an affect on students with relation to depression because they influence everyday life and therefore add more emphasis on the problem. Persistent physical symptoms, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain, which do not respond to routine treatment, are effects of depression that surround the health category (Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2004). Included in The American Psychiatric association’s criteria for the diagnosis of depression includes insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation observable by others, and recurrent thoughts of death or dying. From this you can see how depression as an effect on the individuals physical heath, especially when it leads to suicide or attempted suicide where the individual is seriously harming themselves with the purpose of ending their lives do to the depression.

American Psychological Association. (2015). Depression. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://apa.org/topics/depress/index.aspx
Depression - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. (2013, June 23). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from http://www.med.umich.edu/1info/FHP/practiceguides/depress/depress.pdf
Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2015). Depression. Retrieved April 10, 2015, from http://apa.org/topics/depress/index.aspx
Maley, Michael (2006) The Relationship Between Relational Health and Depression and Social Anxiety in College Students Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/622023274/7DA6F79B6FC649B6PQ/1?accountid=15182

Social Life

Students social lives are heavily impacted by depression because if a student spends time dealing with the health and academic concerns they are less likely to have time to spend on themselves. A sign of depression that affects the social life of a university student is avoiding friends, usual activities, hobbies, as well as recreational activities (Pinsky, pg. 3). Another thing that impacts the social life of a student is fatigue and loss of energy which impacts how often a student can spend outside building social networks (Pinsky, pg. 3). Especially for first years, there I the challenge of finding new social groups, beginning new interpersonal and romantic relationships, cognitive and emotional development, and possibly relocating to a new community, city or even country. This situation puts them at risk for depression as a lack of these bonds can lead to depression and/or social anxiety. Suffering from depression/ social anxiety can ruin current or possible relationships since the individual will act in a more aggressive or bitter manner leading to others avoiding them. An individual suffering from depression will engage in less social activities and will not get as much out of them. As well, it was found that the roommates of individuals suffering from depression were also found to be less happy and often acted in a more aggressive and competitive manner towards their depressed roommate.

Maley, Michael (2006) The Relationship Between Relational Health and Depression and Social Anxiety in College Students Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/622023274/7DA6F79B6FC649B6PQ/1?accountid=15182
Pinsky, L. (n.d.). Depression and Medication, 3-3. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from https://health.columbia.edu/system/files/content/healthpdfs/CPS/depression_medication.pdf

Academics

The life of a depressed student is heavily affected by depression because depression diminishes a student’s ability to concentrate (Depression - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, 2013).
Diagnosed depression was associated with a 0.49 point, or half a letter grade, decrease in student GPA, while treatment was associated with a protective effect of approximately 0.44 points. On average students in the test misses 14.64 classes in the past year, as well as 5.45 assignments missed, 1.36 exams missed, and 0.74 courses dropped. Significantly higher numbers then the control group in a study on the impact of depression on academic productivity of university students. Depression causes an individual to become les focused and less likely to participate in activities that can help them academically. "Students with depression score lower on measures of academic achievement than those without depression. Our obtained Hedges’ g of ‐.61 suggests that students with depression scored on average approximately 6/10 of a standard deviation below the mean of the students without depression. Meaning, if a group of non‐depressed students scored on the 50th percentile on an exam, their depressed counterparts would have only scored on the 27th percentile"(Chan, E., Y. Zadeh, Z., Jahng, N., & Mak, M., n.d.).

Chan, E., Y. Zadeh, Z., Jahng, N., & Mak, M. (n.d.). Depression and Academic Achievement: A Meta‐Analysis. Retrieved April 11, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.cclcca.ca/pdfs/ResearchReports/CACAP_depressionpresentation.pdf
Depression - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. (2013, June 23). Retrieved April 13, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.med.umich.edu/1info/FHP/practiceguides/depress/depress.pdf
Hass, S., Hysenbegasi, A. & Rowland, C. (2005) The Impact of Depression on Academic Productivity of University Students The Journal of Mental Health and Policy Economics Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/620979057/64E5753EDBB4440EPQ/1?accountid=15182

Prevalence of Depression

The prevalence of depression for lifetime is 16.2% but it is lower by roughly 10% when considered a 12-month period, which results into 6.6%. A study has seen an increase of prevalence when it comes to university students in China. The same study achieved a result of 11.7% of prevalence for depression where in the end they have diagnosed 4% of those who took part in the study to experience Major Depressive Disorder.
There are a few factors that contributed to the result of depression in which would be the following:
• Family relationships
• Poor family income
• Year of study
• Dissatisfaction of major
• Age of the student

These factors are what can be the cause of how students end up in Major Depressive Disorder. There are other factors that could contribute to depression but from this study, these were what they have acknowledged common.

Another study done in through a clinic study by the Sultan Qaboos University were there they study took a number of students and find the number of both male and female undergrad students during a period of study for depression. The result of this study shows that the overall percentage of students (both male and female) 27.7% had a form of depression. The table below presents the breakdown of the characteristics that show how severe each factor for the student.

pic.png

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191716/table/t1/

Some factors for this study mentions is the following:
- Moving away from home
- Lack of a parental supervision
- Traditional social support
- Financial issues
These are more of a social and relationship factors that involve family for students that are first time to be away from their own parents and/or those who have raised the student. This mean emotional distress rather than that of a study issue or dissatisfaction as the other study had shown before. As well according to this table, males are more likely to experience a more severe frequency of depression than females. Which would make one think how come males would have a higher frequency than females. But it could be that females have a more of a support system (girl friends, food, etc.) though men would have a harder time mostly when trying to communicate their problems with one another.

One last study that had been conducted in Kenyan, university students participated to get a clearer understanding of depression. During this study there were 923 students participating where there was 525 males and 365 females. The results in this study in the prevalence of depression was 35.7% with males getting a 33.5% and females a 39%. This is rather interesting for females to have a higher percentage than those of men. Comparing from the previous study it is was the opposite with the males being higher than the females. So this can reflect of how the different other countries take in their factoring characteristics.

How many students have depression. Male vs female students. Across different cultures. Using a lot of charts that show this information simply.
-Chen, L., Wang, L., Qiu, X. H., Yang, X. X., Qiao, Z. X., Yang, Y. J., & Liang, Y. (2013). Depression among chinese university students: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. PLoS One, 8(3) doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058379
Al-Busaidi, Z., Bhargava, K., Al-Ismaily, A., Al-Lawati, H., Al-Kindi, R., Al-Shafaee, M., & Al-Maniri, A. (2011). Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman. Oman Medical Journal, 26(4), 235–239. doi:10.5001/omj.2011.58

Caleb J. Othieno, Roselyne O. Okoth, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid, Lucas O. Malla, Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates, Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 165, 20 August 2014, Pages 120-125, ISSN 0165-0327, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.070. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016503271400264X) Keywords: Students; Depression; Risk factors

Resources to Fight Depression

A clinical trial had done a self-help guild for students with depression and anxiety. This study is done through a computer program through the Internet that can provide solutions for their situation. This trail is a relatively good idea for it tries to relate to the current generation for being tech savvy as well as it may be more convenient and private for those who do not want a in to have a face to face interaction.
There participates would have a 6-month follow up from the questionnaire and solution that was giving and the result of all of this showed some improvement for those who were in a waiting list. But this improvement could have only been caused by the fact that those who have distress will over time exceed average would seek help since they could not wait. But there were also quite a few limitations with the results. The limitations would be the following:
- The majority of the participants were females (89%)
- Those who were taking part in this trial volunteered, and actually want a self-help option
But there are always some form of limitation when performing a clinic trail, especially one with issue of depression, stress and anxiety.

Resources at York University

There a few resources that York University has provided for their students with depression. Here are the services that York offers:

- York University – Psychology Clinic
o They provide clinic services as well as group programs for those who need the help. Make an appointment through their site, http://yorku.ca/yupc or check their site for more information
- Counseling and Disability Service – http://cds.info.yorku.ca
- Personal Counseling Service – http://pcs.info.yorku.ca
- Good2Talk
o Though this is not a campus thing, York has this as an option for students to talk outside of the campus. For those who wish to contact or look up Good2Talk can check the site (http://good2talk.ca) or call 1-866-925-5454

Mental health and well-being at York: What’s available to support you? YFile (2014) http://yfile.news.yorku.ca/2014/02/24/mental-health-and-well-being-at-york-whats-available-to-support-you/

Victor Day, Patrick J. McGrath, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Internet-based guided self-help for university students with anxiety, depression and stress: A randomized controlled clinical trial, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 51, Issue 7, July 2013, Pages 344-351, ISSN 0005-7967, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.03.003. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000579671300051X ) Keywords: Guided internet-based treatment; Self-help; Anxiety; Depression; Randomized controlled trial (RCT); University students

Conclusion

Depression is clearly an issue in Universities and although their is recourses to help it is not enough to meet the needs of the students. This is an issue that needs to be worked on more to solve the issues causing depression, like students having troubles with social groups and families, finances, and the way universities are set up to depend so heavily on grades.

Work Cited

Al-Busaidi, Z., Bhargava, K., Al-Ismaily, A., Al-Lawati, H., Al-Kindi, R., Al-Shafaee, M., & Al-Maniri, A. (2011). Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman. Oman Medical Journal, 26(4), 235–239. doi:10.5001/omj.2011.58

American Psychological Association. (2015). Depression. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://apa.org/topics/depress/index.aspx

Asmundson, G., Carleton, N. & Peluso, D. (2011) Depression symptoms in Canadian Psychology Graduate Students: Do Research Productivity, Funding and the Academic Advisory Relationship Play a Role? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/862781926/2AE9EEB000264E17PQ/6?accountid=15182

Caleb J. Othieno, Roselyne O. Okoth, Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid, Lucas O. Malla, Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates, Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 165, 20 August 2014, Pages 120-125, ISSN 0165-0327, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.070. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016503271400264X) Keywords: Students; Depression; Risk factors

Chan, E., Y. Zadeh, Z., Jahng, N., & Mak, M. (n.d.). Depression and Academic Achievement: A Meta‐Analysis. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ResearchReports/CACAP_depressionpresentation.pdf

Chen, L., Wang, L., Qiu, X. H., Yang, X. X., Qiao, Z. X., Yang, Y. J., & Liang, Y. (2013). Depression among chinese university students: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. PLoS One, 8(3) doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058379

Depression - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. (2013, June 23). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from http://www.med.umich.edu/1info/FHP/practiceguides/depress/depress.pdf

Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2015). Depression. Retrieved April 10, 2015, from http://apa.org/topics/depress/index.aspx

Flett, G., Harvey, M., Hewitt, P. & Sherry, S. (2003) Perfectionism Dimensions, Perfectionistic attitudes, Dependent Attitudes and depression in Psychiatric Patients and University Students Journal of Counselling Psychology Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/614382444/16BBCE3D64E24375PQ/1?accountid=15182

Furr, S. & Westefeld, J. (1987) Suicide and Depression Among College Students Professional Psychology. Research and Practice Vol. 18, No. 2. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycarticles/docview/614321028/44CCF5CB6ED54CA8PQ/26?accountid=15182

Hass, S., Hysenbegasi, A. & Rowland, C. (2005) The Impact of Depression on Academic Productivity of University Students The Journal of Mental Health and Policy Economics Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/620979057/64E5753EDBB4440EPQ/1?accountid=15182

Maley, Michael (2006) The Relationship Between Relational Health and Depression and Social Anxiety in College Students Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/psycinfo/docview/622023274/7DA6F79B6FC649B6PQ/1?accountid=15182

Mental health and well-being at York: What’s available to support you? YFile (2014) http://yfile.news.yorku.ca/2014/02/24/mental-health-and-well-being-at-york-whats-available-to-support-you/

Pinsky, L. (n.d.). Depression and Medication, 3-3. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from https://health.columbia.edu/system/files/content/healthpdfs/CPS/depression_medication.pdf

Victor Day, Patrick J. McGrath, Magdalena Wojtowicz, Internet-based guided self-help for university students with anxiety, depression and stress: A randomized controlled clinical trial, Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 51, Issue 7, July 2013, Pages 344-351, ISSN 0005-7967, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.03.003. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000579671300051X ) Keywords: Guided internet-based treatment; Self-help; Anxiety; Depression; Randomized controlled trial (RCT); University students

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License