Do Our Dreams Have Meanings?

To whom this may concern,

Do you know what happens when you go to sleep? Do you die? No–unless you are not to awaken. Is animation suspended? No; all body processes continue to function. Does your mind cease working? No; the dreams of dreamers, facial expressions, bodily behaviour, and occasional talk of sleepers who do not remember dreaming, prove the contrary. Then, what does occur? The physiologist will tell you that the circulatory tension of your brain is lowered, particularly in the outer, the thinking and motor part. This no more explains what occurred than to say that an automobile stops because the ignition has been shut off. Behind the mechanical is the mental. The car stops because the driver wishes it to. You go to sleep because some part of you wishes to. Unlike the motor, you do not stop. Your personality merely enters into another phase of life.

We are providing you with certain sources that we believe will assist you in your writing process. It varies from well informed articles, physical copies of books, journal entries and intriguing videos to complete your research. You will also find annotated bibliographies related to the concept of the meaning of dreams. If you look at our wiki page you will notice specific sections dedicated to different categories that support your topic. We begin with an introduction explaining about the term dreaming and giving a brief summary of all the information you will find. As an extra source of assistance, we have provided definitions that we feel you may benefit from having in your vocabulary. This will also briefly touch upon different types of dreams as they are necessary to the concept of dreaming. Then there is a comparison between Freud and Jung’s interpretation of dreams and their major takes. Proceeding is the various factors which influence dreaming; what causes us to dream and how dreams occur pertaining to the brain. Finally, it ends with discussing the most common dreams and their symbolism.

Our aim was to provide you with a wide variety of primary research articles and supplement these sources with additional resources that will provide you with a deeper understanding of how the theoretical knowledge being established by recent studies is being incorporated into accessible tools for post-secondary students.

The reason we went in this specific direction is because we found these works to be not only interesting but informative as well. We hope that you will be successful in your research.

Sincerely,

Anna Trinh, Beatriz Olivos, Caroline Azan, and Keshya Buxton.

Introduction


It is without a doubt that everyone has experienced dreaming. What is dreaming? Dreaming is the process of imagined series of events that occur during a state of sleep. In many cultures it tells a story, predicts the future, or even tell the past. With each interpretation, it can be said that our dreams carry some sort of meaning. This collection of research aims to provide a detail summary of each topic relating to dreams. Listed below in the many subcategories are the many ways that our dreams can be interpreted, using references from psychologists Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, as well as how dreams work in terms of basic neuroscience, the symbols within a dream and what it means in present time. So many cultures have used dreams in order to interpret their meanings to understand the mind, or what the symbols that appear in those dreams mean. According to Freud, objects found in dreams means that latent dream thoughts are being inputted. Freud touches on many images that involve the male and female genitals. On the other hand, Jung does not believe that dreams are based on sexual desire, he believes that dreams express the innermost psyche of a person, their internal process. What Jung mostly believes about dreams is that the mind is at conflict and through dreams, there are expressed because they need to be resolved. It is your mind’s way of letting you know that there are issues at hand that need to be handled in the conscious world. Similar to Damasio’s Homeostasis, Jung states that the mind is looking for stability and balance. The difference is that Jung’s theory involves more compensation. Dreams do nothing but help give advice, punish and etc. In the Annotated Bibliographies below, you will gain a glimpse into possible sources to use, pertaining to Freud and Jung, dream causes, occurrences and symbolism/interpretation.

Definition and Types of Dreaming


Vocabulary

Conscious: The waking mind policed by ethics, morality, rights and wrong. It self-imposes rules, restrictions, and regulates action and behavior

Defense Mechanism: A psychological term used to describe ways in which we protect ourselves from fear and anxiety.

Deja Vu: The peculiar feeling that a place, situation, person, action, or conversation is familiar and has already been experienced.

Ego: From the Freudian school of thought, the conscious part of one's personality that experiences the external world.

False Awakening: A sensation of waking and going about your morning routine when in fact you are still dreaming. Occurs more frequently in lucid dreamers.

Hypnogogic State: The neurological mechanism in our brain that temporarily disables voluntary muscle movement when we are dreaming. It is also commonly referred to as "REM Paralysis".

Id: From the Freudian school of thought, the unconscious part of personality centered around pleasure and desire.

Latent Content: The underlying meaning behind the symbols in a dream

Oneirology: The science and interpretation of dreams.

REM: Standing for Rapid Eye Movement, it describes the stage of sleep where our eyes move rapidly back and forth. This is where the majority of dreaming occurs.

Superhero: From the Freudian school of thought, the censor which enforces moral codes for the ego and suppresses or blocks unacceptable impulses from the id.

Unconscious: Thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, and feelings which we are not aware of but influence our emotions and behavior in some subtle way.


Types of Dreams

Incorporation of reality: While in a sleeping state, our senses still experience external stimuli. Incorporation of reality in dreams is a phenomenon in which actual sensations are incorporated into dreams, such as hearing the alarm clock ringing in a dream while it is ringing in reality. The concept of dream incorporation is also used to describe the idea that experiences during the day can become elements of a dream.

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Lucid dreaming: Dream in which one is aware he/she is dreaming. The dreamer retains some control over his/her actions and the dream itself. Further control can be attained while deliberately inducing lucid dreams.

Déjà vu/Visions: The illusion of having previously experienced something actually being encountered for the first time. One theory of déjà vu attributes this feeling to having previously dreamed of the situation, forgetting about it, and being mysteriously reminded of it.

Daydreaming: A visionary creation of the imagination experienced while awake; especially, a gratifying reverie usually of wish fulfillment. Although in a conscious state, the daydreamer detaches itself from its immediate surroundings.

Hallucination: A false perception that appears to be real, as when, for example, a man dying of thirst in a desert thinks that he sees a lake. Hallucinations are vivid and perceived as real. As opposed to dreams proper, these happen while in a conscious state.

Nightmares: An unpleasant dream in which the dreamer experiences strong feelings such as helplessness, extreme anxiety, sorrow, etc. These can have a physical or psychological cause, and one usually awakes in a state of distress and extreme discomfort.

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Dynamic Psychiatry


To people, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung were the constructers of the world of psychology. At the start, both psychologists held similar notions in the existence of the unconscious. Eventually feud began between the two because of their different points of view. Resulting is Freud exploring the influence of unconscious thought processes on various aspects of human behaviour and deciding that the most powerful forces were the sexual desires in childhood which were repressed from the conscious mind. Jung, on the other hand viewed dreams as a way of communicating and acquainting oneself with their unconscious. Dreams are not attempts to conceal your true feelings from the waking mind, but rather they are a window to your unconscious. While many people are more familiar with Freud, it is said that Jung has a stronger grasp on the concept of dream interpretation. When comparing Freud and Jung, it is important to notice the differences between them in the context of their personalities and also in the cultural time period of which they lived and worked. And it is also useful to recognise that there are also significant similarities. Both psychologists used to be friends in the past; they were tremendously excited by the other’s intellectual company and would share their thoughts on the unconscious and methods of treating psychopathology. They both gave rise to the idea of an unconscious and the importance of dreams in understanding problems.

Sigmund Freud

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The Interpretation of Dreams

Condensation can be described as anyone who compares the dream-content with the dream-thoughts on a large scale. Freud talks about how we are able to recall short fragments of the dream the night before but towards the evening time the dream will start to fade and become more incomplete. In one of his experiment, the Dream of the Botanical Monographer, led us to conclude that the elements ‘botanical’ and ‘monographer’ found their way to the content of the dream because they possessed many copious contacts with the dream-thoughts. Basically, each of the fundamental element of a dream content turns out to be represented in dream-thoughts. Through this you can say that dream displacement comes out through the influence of the censorship of endopsychic defense henceforth in interpreting dreams using the dreams work factors. The second species of displacement occurs in dream-formation can explain the appearance of absurdity in which dreams express themselves, the direction taken usually results in a colorless and abstract expression being exchanged for a pictorial and concrete one. In conclusion, our minds have two different functions during the construction of a dream. Dream thoughts are entirely rational and are constructed with an expenditure of all the psychical energy of which we are capable of doing. The dream thoughts have their place in thought process that have not become conscious.

Freud, S. & Strachey, J. (Ed.). (1955). The interpretation of dreams. (1st ed.). New York, New York: Basic Books Inc. Publishers. In-text: (Freud & Strachey, 1955, p.279-490)

Carl G. Jung

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Jungian Dream Interpretation

Dreams, called God’s forgotten language by some and messages from the devil by others, have long been seen as portents of the future. The modern belief that dreams are intimately related to the personal psychology, attitudes and behaviour patterns of the dreamer comes from the work of the psychiatrist C.G. Jung. Jung uses certain terms to describe the different parts of the psyche, both conscious and unconscious; topographical divisions. The unconscious is further divided into the personal unconscious and the objective psyche. Jung particularly wanted to emphasize the depths of the human psyche. Within these basic divisions there are general and specialized structures. The general structures being complexes and archetypal images. The special structures of the personal parts of the psyche, both conscious and unconscious are: the ego, the persona, the shadow and the syzygy (paired grouping) of animus/anima. Within the objective psyche there are archetypes and archetypal images; the Self being the most notable archetype. Jung has constructed three major steps in regards to the interpretation of dreams. The first being a clear comprehension of the exact details of the dreams. Next is the gathering of associations and amplifications in progressive order in of or more of these levels – personal, cultural and archetypal. Finally, the placing of the amplified dream in the context of the dreamer’s life situation and process of individuation.

Hall, J. (1983). Jungian dream interpretation a handbook of theory and practice. Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books. In-text: (Hall, 1983, p.9-37)

The Meaning in Dreams and Dreaming

In this book, author Maria Mahoney explains the techniques of psychologist, Carl Jung, in non-technical language to assist readers to comprehend the meaning of their own dreams. Jung recognizes that dreams are pertinent to the normal individual as they are to the neurotic whose cure is facilitated through dream interpretation. He uses dream information to intentionally foster growth of personality in persons in the conventional sense of term. Jung’s research is a topographical map of the inner world of dreams, visions, fantasies, “active imagination” and all else heaved up from the ever-bubbling contents of the psyche. Jung claims, that all dreams in certain time frames express most important internal process of a person, namely some conflict or complex, even when there is no obvious interconnection between respective dreams. All dreams will be pointing at conflict that the dreamer should become conscious of, and remove it. This of course does not mean that each and every dream reflects conflicting psychic state, nor that people who do not remember dreams do not have any conflicts. There are eight major tenets of the Jungian viewpoint. It starts with stating that dreams are not indispensable tools for self-knowledge. Dreams are not “nothing but a dream”; they intend to advice, correct, punish, comfort, heal and warn the normal dreamer just as much as they do the neurotic. The concept of communication is the prime purpose of the dream; its goal is to achieve psychic equilibrium through the principle of compensation. As a natural, spontaneous phenomena, dreams cannot be produced willingly nor influenced by consciousness to tell a different story than it does. Dreams speak in images, it says what it means, there is no “latent meaning” beneath a “manifest façade”. Jung sees the unconscious launching a dream to “wake up” the dreamer to some aspect of his conscious life. Wish fulfilling dreams is not the criterion for interpreting the dream, they are indeed wish fulfilling dreams. Finally, practised attention to dreams can be detected in the following categories; compensatory or complementary, reductive, reactive, prospective, somatic, telepathic, deep-level “big dream” or miscellaneous. Basically, Jung gives the view that dreams help peel away illusions about yourself and bare the truth; what develops is a person’s recognition of an emerging personality.

Mahoney, M. F. (1966). The meaning in dreams and dreaming: The Jungian viewpoint (1st ed.). New York, New York: Citadel Press. (Mahoney, 1966, p.13-54)

What Causes us to Dream?


Causes of dreams

In part 3 of his chapter on dreams, Paul Siwek gives us what he thinks are the four main causes of dreams. Sensory stimulation, either internal or external, or whatever we hear or feel as we sleep, may generate dreams related to that experience. One example would be if someone is sleeping close to a lit candle, that person might dream of a fire. Imagery, or the various images we experienced throughout the day, can cause us to have distorted versions of these images as dreams. The third cause explored by the author is our feelings and desires in the waking state, which may trigger dreams. Finally, our trend of thoughts, whatever we may have been thinking, discussing, has the potential to influence our sleeping state. The author describes the four causes, while giving examples and challenging some other theories regarding dreams, such as Freud’s, and conclude by examining the value of free will in the sleeping state, and as much control we can have over our dreams. The chapter gives a good overview of the main causes of dreams, with clear examples.

Siwek, P. (1959). Causes of Dreams. Experimental Psychology, 393-398. New York, N.Y.: Joseph F. Wagner. doi: 10.1037/11655-023

Dreams

The author explains how the loss of control of the will and the removal of all exterior factors can trigger dreams. As the body falls asleep, it shuts down any hindrance coming from the outside. The brain focuses slowly on what happens internally. The body is still and cannot move on its own volition, thinking and ideas are suspended during sleep. What is suppressed cannot be suppressed any longer. “A dream may, therefore, be defined as the occupation of the field of consciousness during sleep by a succession of ideas more or less completely withdrawn from the guidance of the senses and from the control of the will” (Lyman, p.120). The author explains how the brain has an essential part in the causes of dreams and the dreaming processes. Her chapter talks about the complex topic of dreams, far beyond solely their causes; however, it does give a good insight of the different processes happening in our body, and especially our brain, to cause us to have dreams.

Lyman, H. (1885). M. Dreams. Insomnia; and other disorders of sleep. 116-165. Chicago, IL: W T Keener. doi: 10.1037/10888-007

A Concrete Case for Woodworth’s Hypothesis on the Cause of Dreams

Euri Belle Bolton describes and analyzes in her article Woodworth’s hypothesis on the cause of dreams, and to what extent they differ from popular theories such as Freud’s. His hypothesis states that dreams are the continuation of unfinished affairs while in the waken state. Dreams are more about the “unexpressed” than the “suppressed” (Bolton, p.279). Woodworth, and by extension Bolton, also assimilate the processes of the thinking activity of dreams to the imaginative and creative thinking of waking life The author of the article describes in length a dream she had, as well as the context in which she had her dream in order to support the hypothesis. She further describes other views on the causes of dreams, such as Dunlap’s theory that dreams are not only a product of our everyday experiences, but also a product of our personality. Bolton’s article gives an in-depth analysis of Woodworth’s hypothesis on causes of dreams, and backs it up with published experiments, as well as her own experience.

Bolton, E.B. (1943) A Concrete Case for Woodworth’s Hypothesis on the Cause of Dreams. The Journal of Psychology, 16. 273-284.

How Do Dreams Occur?


When someone sleeps, both the mind and the body are in a state of rest. During this time our minds go from logical thinking to dismay and primal. When we are resting our eyes go through a phase called REM other known as rapid eye movement, this is a stage in sleep in which our eyes move rapidly while we sleep before moving into the stage of dreaming. REM is the movement of your eyes during a state of sleep and mental state of mind. Many articles talk about the process of dreaming and how it occurs in the brain using psychology and neuroscience. Here we have a brief summary on what it is and how it works in relation to how dreams occur pertaining to the brain.

Cognitive and Emotional Processes During Dreaming

In this article, it talks about how to trace the pathways of REM sleep, the high and low activity in the brain during the time of ones sleep showing the researcher whereas in the brain the dreams may have stimulated from. In this article we show that the specific distribution of sustained brain activity during REM sleep may relate to specific dream features, such as sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences in the dreams. Highly emotionally-loaded dreams, in particular nightmares and internally-generated stimuli associated with memories of traumatic events as seen in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can disrupt the maintenance of REM sleep. In addition to dreams during sleep, our awake brains can also generate illusions or perceptual objects that are not present in the actual physical environment. Thus, neuroimaging data of illusions and mental imagery may be relevant for our understanding of the neural underpinnings of our dreams.

Desseilles, M., Dang-Vu, T., Sterpenich, V., & Schwartz, S. (2011). Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: A neuroimaging view. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(4), 998-1008. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.10.005

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Dreams: Disguise of Forbidden Wishes or Transparent Reflections of a Distinct Brain State?

In this article, researchers focus on the topic of REM sleep and how it relates to the occurrences of dreams within the brain. During REM sleep, the limbic system of the brain, including the hippocampus and amygdala (which are involved in processing emotions and motivation) is very active. This must be consistent with some of the bizarre, illogical and disorganized imagery in dreams that we witness every night, as well as the absence of logic and self-criticism. Researchers determined that during dreams, the brain allows it’s most recently-evolved, more controlling side to think less logically. REM sleep brain activation does not arise from wishes or from motivationally linked sources. However, as in interpreting a Rorschach card, meaning may be attributed to a dream, since all stimuli, internally or externally generated, may be seen as meaningful in the context of individual experience. In the attributed meaning, motivationally relevant themes may arise.

Functions of REM sleep: It’s likely that REM sleep has more than one function, as do walking and breathing, but the functions of REM sleep remain speculative. The high percentage of REM sleep suggests that it may play a role in growth and development of a human being. In mature animals the activation of motor systems during REM may serve an “exercise” or a maintenance function for activities that may not get carried out during the day. Thus showing how REM is a part of the dreaming system and occurrence.

McCarley, R. W. (1998). Dreams: Disguise of forbidden wishes or transparent reflections of a distinct brain state? Neuroscience of the mind on the centennial of Freud’s project for a scientific psychology. (pp. 115-133) New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY. Doi 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08210.x

The Interpretation of Dreams and the Neurosciences.

Neuroscientific research into the mechanism of REM sleep continued along these lines, using a wide variety of methods, and by 1975 a detailed picture of the anatomy and physiology of “dreaming sleep” had emerged. This picture, which is embodied in the reciprocal interaction and activation-synthesis models of McCarley and Hobson (1975, 1977), has dominated the field. These famous models proposed that REM sleep and dreaming were literally ‘switched on’ by a small group of cells situated deep within the pons, a small region of cells in a part of the brainstem, which excrete a chemical called “acetylcholine”. This chemical activates the higher parts of the brain, which are prompted to generate (meaningless) conscious images. These meaningless images are nothing more than the higher brain making ‘the best of a bad job”. After a few minutes of REM activity, the cholinergic activation arising from the brainstem is counteracted by another group of cells, also situated in the pons, which excrete two other chemicals: noradrenaline and serotonin. These chemicals `switch off’ or stop the cholinergic activation (and, according to the theory, the conscious experience of dreaming). This part of the nervous system is situated at a level only slightly above the spinal cord, near the nape of the neck. The higher levels of the brain, such as the cerebral hemispheres themselves which fill out the great hollow of the human skull, did not appear to play any causal role whatever in the generation of dreaming. REM sleep occurs with monotonous regularity, throughout sleep, so as long as the pons is intact, even if the great cerebral hemispheres are removed completely it would still function regardless.

Solms, M. (2007). The interpretation of dreams and the neurosciences. Developmental science and psychoanalysis: Integration and innovation. (pp. 141-158) Karnac Books, London. Doi: 10.3366/pah.2001.3.1.79

Common Dreams and their Symbolism


Dream interpretation is the act of giving a certain to dreams, and the objects found within them. In the past of many ancient societies, like Egypt, Greece and some Asian countries, dreaming takes on a supernatural “communication or a divine intervention.” In this section, the influence relies mostly on Freudian Symbolism and some other writers with complementary or conflicting views.

Animals often represent the part of your psyche that feels connected to nature and survival. Being chased by a predator suggests you're holding back repressed emotions like fear or aggression.

Babies can symbolize a literal desire to produce offspring, or your own vulnerability or need to feel loved. They can also signify a new start.

Being chased is one of the most common dream symbols in all cultures. It means you're feeling threatened, so reflect on who's chasing you (they may be symbolic) and why they're a possible threat in real life.

Clothes make a statement about how we want people to perceive us. If your dream symbol is shabby clothing, you may feel unattractive or worn out. Changing what you wear may reflect a lifestyle change.

Crosses are interpreted subjectively depending on your religious beliefs. Some see it as symbolizing balance, death, or an end to a particular phase of life. The specific circumstances will help define them.

Exams can signify self-evaluation, with the content of the exam reflecting the part of your personality or life under inspection.

Death of a friend or loved one represents change (endings and new beginnings) and is not a psychic prediction of any kind. If you are recently bereaved, it may be an attempt to come to terms with the event.

Falling is a common dream symbol that relates to our anxieties about letting go, losing control, or somehow failing after a success.

Faulty machinery in dreams is caused by the language center being shut down while asleep, making it difficult to dial a phone, read the time, or search the internet. It can also represent performance anxiety.

Food is said to symbolize knowledge, because it nourishes the body just as information nourishes the brain. However, it could just be food.

Representation by Symbols in Dreams

In this translated edition of Freud’s book, the concept of dreams is the main focus. In the chapter chosen, dream symbolism is the main element, as well as some of the possible meanings behind these dreams according to Freud. They mention that many of the people that could interpret their dreams were people with that had dementia. For a long time, that was believed to be true, but later on that was disproving. Many of the concepts covered by this chapter are the connection of symbols, whether dreams have symbolism in them or not. Also, whether dreams are born of latent desires. “…the presence of symbols in dreams not only facilitates their interpretation but also makes it more difficult.” (Freud, 1965, p. 388). As explained in the chapter, sometimes the symbol in the dream are interpreted as they appear, but there are also times when the symbol that appears is strange and foreign to the dream and makes no sense there. Sometimes one symbol can have more than several meanings. Some of the symbols that they talk about are dreaming of Emperors or Empress, or Princes or Princess. These symbols are representations of the dreamers themselves according to Freud. Also, Freud talks about when children dream of a room that was one as two separate rooms, or vice versa. Freud said the female genitals and the anus are regarded as a ‘single area.’ Freud concept of dreams, as well as many of this other theories and ideals, are based on a sexual, id-centered nature. Freud brings into account the interpretation of dreams, the meaning behind the symbols found in them, but how they relate the latent desires of the subconscious/unconscious mind.

Freud, S. (1965). Representation by symbols in dreams in dream -some further typical dreams. In J. Strachey (Ed.), Sigmund Freud: The interpretation of dreams (3rd ed., Vol. 4-5, pp. 85- 439). New York: Avon Books.

Metaphor and Symbol

Symbolism, in the book Innocent of Dreams touches on the meaning of objects that appear in a dream and what they really are. The chapter: Symbolism, talks about Freud’s take on dream as well as Ernest Jones who wrote a paper on “The Theory of Symbolism.” Like Freud, he believes in true symbols, and that objects to have a true meaning when they appear in your dream. Some things that appeared in dreams, like badges, tokens and etc held no actual meaning above what they appeared to be. Ernest states in detail stating that symbols found in dream of a repressed nature. Symbols in dreams, according to Jones are the repressed thoughts, that only repressed thoughts can be symbolized in dreams. Rycroft quotes Ernest saying that “ideas of self and the immediate blood relatives needs or of the phenomena of birth, love and death. In other words, they represent the most primitive ideas and interest imaginable.” (Rycroft, 1981, p. 74). Jones takes on a psychoanalytic view when referring to true symbolism and wide range symbolism. Like Freud, Jones’ view was highly critiqued and offended many. Jones’ view states that openly states that objects found in dreams are repressed emotions and feelings, and those repressed emotions and feelings deal with love, death, birth and etc. If you read the sub- chapter before, you will see the similarity in Sexual or Freudian Symbolism.

Rycroft, C. (1981). Metaphor and symbol: Symbolism. In The innocence of dreams (Vol. 1, pp.73-76). Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Dreams and Creativity

In Robbins’ book, the chapter symbolism literates Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams the dream interpretation. It talks about how Freud argued against dream interpretation being a free association as opposed to a ‘this means that.’ Paul touches on Freud’s symbolism found in dreams holds latent dream thoughts that are projected into the dreams. Paul states Freud’s symbols hold a “strong emphasis on sexuality in their interpretation. He stated ‘All elongated objects, such as sticks, tree-trunks and umbrellas –may stand for the male organ…’4” (Robbins, 1988, p. 67). Paul quotes Freud, who states that certain objects that are elongated, have a phallic nature. Other objects that are used for the male organ are knives, daggers, pikes, revolvers and etc. For female organs, Paul says that Freud uses boxes, cases, and other objects. As far as symbols are concerned for this chapter, Freud’s view is the main factor, as well as those who support him. Robbins states that Freud takes a fantastic view of symbolism, however they are hard to test. Freud’s latent dream thoughts symbolism also had factors that conflicted with it, ones that he did not know about, such as language, where many of his symbols were based off of language. Questions on whether objects can be representations above what they seem to be.

Robbins, P. (1988). Dreams and creativity. In The psychology of dreams (pp. 76- 72). United States of America: McFarland & Company.

Videos


Dreams

Sigmund Freud

Carl G. Jung

Dream Occurrence

Dream Symbolism

Conclusion


In the end, the writer should have a relative understanding of what Dream Interpretation is according to Freud and Jung. These two men are both well known, but Freud tends to be the direction that everyone turns to for Freudian symbolism (Sexual). Jung holds a more supernatural aspects to his symbolism and theology. They put everything into perspective, and by briefly touching each ones theology get to amazing different takes on the subject. There a few examples of common dream symbols and their meaning. It is mainly focused on Feud and his symbolism, but it also touches on a few others such as Ernest Jones, and many authors/writers that spoke for and against the idea of true symbolism and wide range symbolism. Although the subject of multiple researches and experiments, dreams remain a complex concept that we have yet to fully understand.

References


5 Common Dream Interpretations. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWTOc8vJVLo

Bolton, E.B. (1943) A Concrete Case for Woodworth’s Hypothesis on the Cause of Dreams. The Journal of Psychology, 16. 273-284.

Carl Jung - Dreams. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08BCIIJ4SOs

Desseilles, M., Dang-Vu, T., Sterpenich, V., & Schwartz, S. (2011). Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: A neuroimaging view. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(4), 998-1008. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.10.005

Do Our Dreams Mean Anything? (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1apb7XQPTXI

Facts You Didn't Know About Your Dreams. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFhIphla_1s

Freud, S. (1965). Representation by symbols in dreams in dream -some further typical dreams. In J. Strachey (Ed.), Sigmund Freud: The interpretation of dreams (3rd ed., Vol. 4-5, pp. 85- 439). New York: Avon Books.

Freud, S. & Strachey, J. (Ed.). (1955). The interpretation of dreams. (1st ed.). New York, New York: Basic Books Inc. Publishers. In-text: (Freud & Strachey, 1955, p.279-490)

Freud's Interpretation of Dreams. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBb4qnkclb8

Hall, J. (1983). Jungian dream interpretation a handbook of theory and practice. Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books. In-text: (Hall, 1983, p.9-37)

Lyman, H. (1885). M. Dreams. Insomnia; and other disorders of sleep. 116-165. Chicago, IL: W T Keener. doi: 10.1037/10888-007

Mahoney, M. F. (1966). The meaning in dreams and dreaming: The Jungian viewpoint (1st ed.). New York, New York: Citadel Press. (Mahoney, 1966, p.13-54)

McCarley, R. W. (1998). Dreams: Disguise of forbidden wishes or transparent reflections of a distinct brain state? Neuroscience of the mind on the centennial of Freud’s project for a scientific psychology. (pp. 115-133) New York Academy of Sciences, New York, NY. Doi 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08210.x

Pierce, F. (1931). Dreams and personality: A study of our dual lives. New York, New York: D. Appleton and Company. (Pierce, 1931, p.3)

Robbins, P. (1988). Dreams and creativity. In The psychology of dreams (pp. 76- 72). United States of America: McFarland & Company.

Rycroft, C. (1981). Metaphor and symbol: Symbolism. In The innocence of dreams (Vol. 1, pp.73-76). Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Siwek, P. (1959). Causes of Dreams. Experimental Psychology, 393-398. New York, N.Y.: Joseph F. Wagner. doi: 10.1037/11655-023

Solms, M. (2007). The interpretation of dreams and the neurosciences. Developmental science and psychoanalysis: Integration and innovation. (pp. 141-158) Karnac Books, London. Doi: 10.3366/pah.2001.3.1.79

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