Group Ik2

Jessica, Sheron, Marta, Bethany, Alyssa

Digital Media & The Generation Gap: A Guide For Parents about their children.

Dear Writer, We would like to thank you for the opportunity to provide you with research that we believe will be beneficial to you. We have chosen sub topics and articles that will fit best for writing an advice article to parents. Due to the rapid improvement in technology and a rapid increase in the use and influence of digital media, we believe parents deserve some assistance and information in what they can expect their children to experience as well as what they can do to help. We have chosen four sub topics to classify the prevailing themes; understanding relationship issues (specifically between parents and children), the effects on the lifestyle of the child; such as education and mental state, the prevalence of violence, sex, and cyber bullying in media and finally how digital media will effect their intimate relationships with a focus on online dating and the use of technology in a relationship. These topics have been chosen because we believe that they are the most important and deserve the most attention. We have organized our research into advantages and disadvantages to ensure flow and an easy understanding of the research that has been provided.

Generation Name Generation Name Births Ending Youngest Age Today Oldest Age Today
The Lost Generation -The Generation of 1914 1890 1915 100 125
The Interbellum Generation 1901 1913 102 114
The Greatest Generation 1910 1925 90 105
The Silent Generation 1923 1944 71 92
Baby Boomer Generation 1945 1964 51 70
Generation X 1961 1981 34 54
Generation Y - The Millennials - Gen Next 1975 1995 20 40
Generation Z 1995 2015 0 20

Source: Michael T. Robinson (2015) The generations:
What generation are you? Career Planner.com Retrieved from: http://www.careerplanner.com/Career-Articles/Generations.cfm

We have decided to include this graph to distinguish the generations so that there will not be any misunderstandings as to what generation our research is focused around. We are focusing around Generation Y because it is during this time that technology has transformed into what it is today. We wanted to ensure that all of the information is clear and easy to understand.


There are some considerable disadvantages and advantages of Digital Media on everyone including parents. By addressing the generation gap between parents and their children, can parents truly understand the scope of the situation. This is a guide to help parents understand their child's life. It provides information on: Relationship issues, Effect on Lifestyles, Desensitization to common issues, and The Dating issue.
Digital media is defined as any media that is available digitally. This can encompass, television broadcasts, instant messaging, social networking, online articles, blogs and internet sites and practically everything accessible through the internet.


Relationship issues

Parental Relationships
Socha, T., & Stamp, G. (2009). Parent-child communication outside the family exploring communication in parent-child-society relationships. London: Routledge.

This article starts by comparing the average hours of “screen time” a household consumes daily. These stats are taken from families who have children from 0-8 highlighting the differences we see in media consumption due to different household incomes.
Negative: Lower income parents have been known to resort to putting their children in front of a TV or handing them an iPhone in order to keep them distracted and busy instead of attending to them (due to many different reasons including health, language, transportation etc.). The article mentions that “tasks are negotiated rather than delegated, and the child’s individual entitlement trumps obligation in many households”. The article also reveals that studies show children learn more from experiencing and participating in existing societal structures like school, sports, the arts, etc.
Positives: This article highlights positives ways to teach their children time management instead of forcing them to reduce their screen time. The article mentions positives in the work life as well. Parents that work at an office would normally have to stay long hours at the office, but these days with technology parents and children are still able to interact and converse while the parent is still able to get work done. You are still able to tuck your child into bed while an e-mail is being sent to your boss.

Parenting in a Digital Age. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://digitalparenting.wordpress.com/
Chapter 13 of this book talks about how parents can use media as a tool. Even though media is almost always surrounding children, parenting goes far beyond just blocking certain websites and using internet filters. As you read further into chapter 13, parents are encouraged to “focus on a direct interpersonal communication with their children”(222). It outlines that parents need to keep and develop this relationship because they are a huge influence on their children.
Page 223 has a sub-heading titled “Parenting Goals” which addresses the two primary goals of effective parenting: to develop their character and competence. This is achieved as the parent centres their rules/disciplines of media and technology on the child's benefit and well being for their cognitive enhancement.
Positives of media and technology: The messages that children need to hear such as buckling their seat belts, not drinking and driving, donating the charity, etc. is able to be seen at the touch of a button or changing the channel.
Negatives: Children are completely surrounded by media. This book reveals many statistics in chapter 13 about how much media children are being bombarded with.

Davis, K., Weigel, M., James, C., & Gardner, H. (2008). Social Development in the Era of New Digital Media. 1-15. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://thegoodproject.org/pdf/No-60-Social-Development-in-Era-of-NDM.pdf
Davis,weigel, etc research specifically looks at the interactions between family members- especially with parents and children and how this has shifted due to digital media (10). Parents have amplified their monitoring capabilities through communicating through e-mail, text, phone calls, computers, internet, etc. (14). The authors address the issue of adolescent rebellion which is now influenced and assisted by the new digital era. For example, children are able to create fake identities to engage in different dangerous or illegal.


Effects On Lifestyles

Victor C. Strasburger, Amy B. Jordan, Ed Donnerstein, (2010) Health effects of media on children and adolescents. Pediatrics. Volume 125, No. 4. Pg. 756-767. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2563

This is another article that addresses the direct problems and possible effects of digital media. However this article presents insightful ideas as to way to reduce the effect of negative digital media and how to regulate technology use in order to inhibit negative effects. It provides beneficial distinctions between traditional media, such as the regular television and broadcast news and the current new media, like social networking, online news, and websites. This article touches upon aspects related to violence and aggression, sex, substance use, obesity and eating disorders, developmental concerns, school performance and learning problems, and other possible related health effects. Covering the major concerns and benefits, it provides valuable insight as a basis for information. Nothing is into great depth, but it is enough to ensure the proper concepts are addressed.

Gwenn Schurgin O’Keeffe, Kathleen Clarke-Pearson, and Council on Communications and Media (2011) Clinical report—The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. American Academy of Pediatrics. Volume 127. No. 4. Pg. 800-804. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0054.

Gwenn Schurgin O’Keeffe, Kathleen Clarke-Pearson in this article address one of the most common differences between children and parents. That even though the child’s life may be technology immersed, the parents may not be as tech savvy and often do not understand their children because of this. An excellent basis for covering the general concerns and advantages for digital media use and technology in general it also provides a connection with pediatricians in case the parents are genuinely concerned for their child. The benefits of social media use are subdivided under, socialization and communication, enhanced learning opportunities, and assessing health opportunities. The disadvantages address issues concerning, cyber bullying and online harassment, sexting, and facebook depression. The remaining topics address privacy concerns and the digital footprint, influences of advertising and buying, and mixed messages from parents and the law. Finally it concludes on how parents can seek help for their child using Pediatricians and what issues can be addressed in regards to the parental child relationships.

Mental Stability

Disadvantages

Lauren A. Jelenchick, Jens C. Eickhoff, Meagan A. Moreno (2012) “Facebook Depression?” Social networking site use and depression in older adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. Volume 52, Issue 1. Doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.05.008.

One of the major concerns for parents is the possibility facebook causing depression in young adults. This particular study investigated this theory by recruiting students between the ages of 18 to 23 from an introductory communications course from February and December 2011 at a large public Midwest university. They obtained consent and participated in a survey using the experience sampling method approach and over 7 days administered a series of 43 surveys using text message. The surveys measured the amount of time the individual spent online, on social networking sites (SNS) and compared this to their possible levels of depression according to the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ). These surveys “asked participants to describe whether they were currently online, how many minutes they had been online, and what they were doing online. Participants indicated their online activities from a predetermined list, including academic work, general browsing, chatting, e-mailing, downloading, SNS use, gaming, and streaming other media.” In using this information over as short term basis there were no correlations between the use of social media and depression among individuals. Yet if this study had been investigating long term there might be variance in the results. As it stands from this one study there is no need for worry about possible facebook depression. This article can stand as a warning for parents, for there may not be any repercussions currently but in the future social media can have an impact on their child’s emotional and mental state.

L.D Rosen, K. Whaling, S. Rab, L.M. Carrier, N.A. Cheever (2013) Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior. Volume 29. Issue 3. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.012

Dealing directly with the negative effects of digital media, this article specializes in facebook and other social media like sites. Providing some very conclusive evidence from multiple studies around the world, this article compiles everything bad about social media, and connects it to proven psychiatric disorders. Having examined three mood disorders and six personality disorders this article has the reader critically evaluation the psychiatric health of the users of social and digital media. This provides to parents the proven and possible effects facebook as an example may have on their children. One of the most speculative themes in the article is, “This study also leaves open the question of cause and effect. Does technology use cause the signs of a disorder or does having the signs of a disorder cause a person to seek out and use a specific technology?” This statement is the inspiration for further study on the effect of digital media on people. Until then, there are mainly just speculative ideas and concepts that have yielded drastic results.

Effect on Education

Advantages

Marc Prensky (2001) Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, Vol. 9 No. 5. Retrieved from: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

This article makes a stark distinction that perfectly exemplifies the generation gap. The generation that has grown up completely submerged in technology, learning to think around it and with it are considered “digital natives”. Where as the teachers and the parents of those children that did not grow up completely submerged and are recent arrivers are “digital immigrants”. Marc Prensky in the investigation of the critical disparities between the two generations poses an alternate solution that may pose many problems in the educational sector. In order to become up to speed with the students the teachers require re teaching or qualification. Since the students cannot unlearn, the teachers must learn. Digital natives think learn and speak in a completely different language then the immigrants, and with this there is no way any advancement in education will be effective until this is fixed. This provides to parents the encouragement they may need to use technology or digital applications for the benefit of their child’s education, while still watching for overuse and negative effects.

Chien, Ming-tso. (2013) Digital media's transformative role in education: Beyond potential to essential. ProQuest PsycINFO. Volume 74. ISBN: 9781267863119. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Chien, Ming-tso in this article fully evaluates the effect on digital media and the possible implementation into the school curriculum.By using multiple teacher accounts and techniques in teaching a technology based program, as well as critically evaluation the necessity for a change in curriculum to meet the student’s needs. Addressing the teachers and their intentions for teaching digital media, what happens in the classes through the use of digital media, the use of digital media and its effect on students’ educational experience, and the possible implications for education in general. One of her major themes and arguments is the ability for the student to “learn to develop their multifaceted thinking in a learning process where they try it out, test the boundaries, experiment with alternatives, get input from others, and generate new ideas based on their experience.” Digital media and technology is practically redeveloping the educational system, and as the title of the article says, it is no longer a potential change, but essential in maintaining an up to date and efficient educational curriculum. This article is key for anyone who wants to see the possible negative implications digital media may have on children, and of course the benefits and advancements in learning it may hold.


Desensitization to violence

Sex

Canadian Pediatic Society. Impact of media use on children and youth. //Journal of

Position Statement. 8(1)//. 301-306. June 2013

Bebatsikos G. states in this article that digital media helps as an educational tool for student videos showing them how to practice abstanece, use condoms or be an aid for parents. Another positive attribute is that, media shows how to treat a woman with love gentleness and respect. Many parents of today’s generation did not have sexual education class or videos explaining all about sex. However, children today depend on television, cellphones, and other sources of media and technology to aid them in gaining knowledge around this topic.

Advantage

Television can be a powerful teacher. Sesame Street is an example of how toddlers can learn valuable lessons about racial harmony, cooperation, kindness, simple arithmetic and the alphabet through an educational television format. Some public television programs stimulate visits to the zoo, libraries, bookstores, museums and other active recreational settings, and educational videos can certainly serve as powerful prosocial teaching devices. The educational value of Sesame Street has been shown to improve the reading and learning skills of its viewers. In some settings healthy television habits may actually be a beneficial teaching tool.

Disadvantage

Exposing people to think sex is cool and normal causes high rates of pregnancy. Media can negatively effect children if sex is portrayed in the wrong ways. According to the information in this article, watching television has negatively impacted children and causes encouraged them to take part in irresponsible sexual behaviour. This is correct in a way because media does not show to viewers other aspects such as safe sex and the issues that may arise when engaging in such an activity. Young adolescents have increased practicing unsafe sex and there have been many girls getting pregnant at a young age. There are many shows and videos showing men begin violent towards sexual intercourse which supports the article when it states "The amount of violence on television is on the rise. The average child sees 12,000 violent acts on television annually, including many depictions of murder and rape. More than 1000 studies confirm that exposure to heavy doses of television violence increases aggressive behaviour, particularly in boys”. This article clearly explains how violence is on a rise and actions needs to take place in order to put a stop to it. Although there may be negative effects, some positive effects do exist. It is true that media is used as a guide to help parents explain to children about having safe sex and the safe ways in which it should be practiced. It has served as an educational tool for professionals and parents, thus helping to shape responsible behaviours in children.

Cyber bullying

Cyberbullying is a serious offence that not many children have knowledge around. The lack of knowledge comes from miscommunication and misunderstanding of how to use the internet for the right purposes. Cyberbullying can be caused by inappropriate comments written on all sorts of media such as Twitter, Instagram and Facebook. Cyberbullying can come to an end if more people took the initiative to educate their children, and family/friends about this. If children were to know the consequences for this type of behaviour, it is very likely that they can stop. The following article below clearly outlines what cyberbullying is and how it can be prevented.

Advantages

Cowie, H. (2013). Cyberbullying and its impact on young people's emotional health and well-being | BJPsych Bulletin. Retrieved April 10, 2015 from

http://pb.rcpsych.org/content/37/5/167

According to this article, there are numerous books that help parents to understand the anxiety and emotions children feel in regards to cyberbullying. It is true that a connection exists between bullying and child sexual abuse. Programs such as bullying prevention should attempt to help bully/victims with referral and assessment for sexual abuse as a possible cause of the bullying behaviour. Not all children may have the same cause to acting a certain way, but it is critical that procedures take place in order to correct unacceptable behaviour. For young adolescents who have experienced sexual abuse, therapeutic storytelling may be a strategy by which counsellors can build trust, reduce shame and self-blame, and increase the willingness of youth to discuss their experiences. There many situations in school settings that have proven to be successful with the help of counselling in a child’s life. In some forms of therapeutic storytelling, a therapist engages a child sexual abuse survivor with individually-tailored stories in which the main characters overcome danger, threats, or fears. This is critical because a councillor can definitely reach out to the child’s problems and work one-on-one with them to decrease their anxiety, fear, and etc. As the article states “therapeutic storytelling can model possibilities for healing and growth following trauma.”. Numerous books for children, youth, and young adults address the topics of sexual abuse and resiliency. Parents and professionals should become thoroughly acquainted with a variety of these books before sharing them with youth. Such books have potential to raise awareness but may also trigger anxiety for youth survivors of child sexual abuse unless shared in a context where referral and support services are available.

Disadvantage

Tietel, E. (2012). The real world of teenage cyberbullying. Retrieved from

http://www.macleans.ca/society/life/bullied-to-death/ on April 14 2015.

Barrett, B. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting. J Child Sexual Abuse. 2009;18:489-512.

Cyber-bullying has many disadvantages as it has decreased children’s self-esteem, had them feel unsafe and has been a cause for various suicides. For instance, Amanda Todd committed suicide due to the experience she endured from cyber bullying. She left a confessional tape on Youtube outlining the traumatic unfortunate events. Teitel, from Macleans article, indicates that 43% of kids have been cyber-bullied and most parents are unaware of what is going on in social media. On the contrary, media has become a strong tool to advocate against anti-bullying and help parents find strategies on how to help their children overcome these obstacles. For instance, research states, there are numerous books that can help parents understand the anxiety and emotions children feel in regards to child abuse and help them find preventive measures. Also, therapy can be used to help children cope with cyber-bullying as methods such as story-telling has proven to help bring healing to children (Barrett, 2009).
 
News

American Psychological Association. (2003). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved from

http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2003/03/media-violence.aspx from April 11 2015.

Advantages

One of the advantages is to raise awareness for people who are trying to prevent wars or an issue that effects people negatively. News has been an outlet where citizens have been able to bring attention to these issues. Also, the news has shown us what goes on in a third world country such as a war. This helps us to stay in touch with what is going over-seas as there are many families that we know back home can be effected.

Violent films and programs that probably have the most deleterious effects on children are not always the ones that adults and critics believe are the most violent, the authors point out. "Violent scenes that children are most likely to model their behaviour after are ones in which they identify with the perpetrator of the violence, the perpetrator is rewarded for the violence and in which children perceive the scene as telling about life like it really is," according to the researchers. "Thus, a violent act by someone like Dirty Harry that results in a criminal being eliminated and brings glory to Harry is of more concern than a bloodier murder by a despicable criminal who is brought to justice."

The study suggests a number of steps parents and society can take to prevent or reduce this effect. Research has shown that parental co-viewing of and commenting on the programs seems to reduce the effects of TV violence on children, probably because it reduces the child's identification with the person committing the Disadvantage.

Disadvantages

The article states that disadvantage of the news is that when a child views violent acts in third world countries or other places on the news, they tend to believe that this type of behaviour and action is acceptable in media. They may even perhaps try implementing it in their everyday lives. Children are still growing everyday, and will easily believe what the news states. They will not know what is right and wrong, and believe everything they hear. In order to change their perspectives, parents needs to constantly stay in communication with their children and inform them of what is right and what is wrong. Children need to be reminded that the news is a form of media that keeps people aware of the many things around us (both positive and negative). Children also need to know that they need to take the best information from the news in order to gain more knowledge as growing individuals.


Dating

Online Dating

Advantages

McWilliams, S., & Barrett, A. (2014). Online dating in middle and later life: Gendered expectations and experiences. Journal of Family Issues, 35(3), 411-436. doi: 10.1177/0192513X12468437

Summer Mcwilliams and Ann Barrett have considered a different perspective in respects to online dating and how its effect has travelled. It was mentioned that many articles focus on how online dating impacts the younger generation but lacks relavant information on their parents. By stating that there are sites that are filled with large portions of elderly individuals seeking a partner has astonished many people and is a great piece of information that proves that older generations do make use of the tools created through digital media. It is a strong article that provides the other side of the story of what role online dating plays for people. There was research done to figure out how online dating has changed with the older generations. There is information that indicates that despite dating sites composed of mostly older adults, it is very difficult to find a partner because the expectations change as people age.

Rosen, L. D., Cheever, N. A., Cummings, C., & Felt, J. (2008). The impact of emotionality and self-disclosure on online dating versus traditional dating. Computers in Human Behaviour, 24(5), 2124-2157. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2007.10.003

According to research found, online daters are more confident and are more likely to marry the individual that they have met through the online dating site. Many relationships formed through traditional methods take much longer for the individuals to truly connect. Couples that have met through online dating sites have talked about personal experiences and ideas through within a few e-mails. The key to forming an intimate relationship was through self disclosure and revealing your true self. The effectiveness of online dating was studied through communication theories such as the Social Information Processing Theory (SIP) which claimed that affection was built by the message content, style and timing. To further understand online dating, there were studies designed to record information on behaviour, comparing traditional dating and online dating. The studies focused on the first e-mail sent from a man to a women and how openness would impact the rest of the relationship. The article truly captured the information behind the use and effectiveness of online dating sites. This article can be used as a resource for an article to explain the positive effect of meeting others through online dating sites. It is a good example of how digital media has effected the younger generations and how digital media takes traditional concepts and changes them to modern.

Disadvantages

Guadagno, R. E., Okdie, B. M., & Kruse, S. A. (2012). Dating deception: Gender, online dating, and exaggerated self-presentation. Computers in Human Behaviour, 28(2), 642-647. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.010

The article mainly focuses on the possibility of online daters creating false representations of themselves. Key contributing factors to the deception of a person, was whether or not there was a chance of meeting the individual and if they were attractive. The other other factor is if there was a threat to their own image, which regardless of which factor encourages the deception, the motivation to present themselves incorrectly may increase. Research shows that males were more willing to engage in deceptive self presentation. Males mostly focused on enchanting personality traits such as being more dominant and kinder than they are. Women often focus on enhancing their appearance. One of the main pieces of information mentions that the ability to be anonymous increases the possibility of antisocial behaviour, for example, deception. There was a study conducted to understand the self presentation process. Some of the participants were told they would interact through e mail, face to face or just fill out a questionnaire. It is clear that there is a large amount of online daters creating a false representation of themselves.

The Use of Digital Media and Technology and its Effects on Relationships

Advantages

Arditti, J. A., & Kauffman, M. (2004). Staying close when apart. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 3(1), 27-51. doi:10.1300/J398v03n01_03

The main focus is to understand how couples maintain their intimacy while in a long distance relationship. Without the ability to go on dates and have face to face interactions, the relationship is slightly strained due to the decrease in exchange in affection. The study conducted was to grasp what couples do in order to stay close, what similarities are present and why do they persist in long distance relationships? The study was conducted through various long interviews of the individuals in the relationship. The results of the study stated that in order for the couples to stay close, they use technology to communicate. The telephone is often used when wanting to talk, however it was mentioned that it became to expensive to talk as long as they did and having to find substitutions was needed. To prevent long talks on the phone, many couples would e-mail, communicate through a form of social media or call through the internet. The use of digital media and technology has shown to maintain intimacy within relationships of all ages, and has made long distance communication possible.

Disadvantages

O’Keeffe, G. Clarke-Pearson, K. Council on Communications and Media. The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents and Families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-803. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0054

The article focuses on a multitude of topics, however, one of the topics related to the use of digital media and technology is the lack of privacy. With the constant use of social media, people are posting pictures and posts that give too much information about themselves. The other problem that relates to the lack of privacy is sexting. Media is known for allowing people to experiment sexually, emotionally, and so on. By lacking the knowledge that what is sent to someone through a cell phone or what is posted on the internet can be seen by anyone. The younger generation is really the one that is crossing the line with what technology has to offer. Due to the knowledge gap on technology, the parents are unable to monitor their children’s use of technology which can cause many problems. The article focuses on trying to get the message out to parents that their children may be making decisions that will have a large effect on themselves and their relationships.

Samimi, P., & Alderson, K. G. (2014). Sexting among undergraduate students. Computers in Human Behaviour, 31(Complete), 230-241. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.10.027

There is a great deal of information around sexting and young adults. Sexting is the use of photos or messages that are made to be sexually arousing to whomever they are sent to. It was stated that sexting is more common amongst people in a relationship, however individuals not in a relationship have sexted as well. It was recognized that females were more likely to sext. It is believed that in a photo there was no action being done. The photo of a women mainly consisted of her body while wearing a bra, underwear, bathing suite while for a men it was a photo of him without a shirt with boxers. However, there were times when nude photos were sent. The major problem with this is that sometimes the photos that were sent to someone specific are seen by more than just that person. The research that had been done was in the form of questionnaires and the results indicate that gender did not play as large of a role as relationship status in regards to sexting. Those who are more permissive were more likely to engage in sexting than those who are conservative. The female participants believe that there are consequences connected to sexting and that parents should control or monitor the use of technology by their kids.


All of the above articles address some form of abuse or possible advantages of digital media. What parents must look out for, are the signs of misuse and detrimental effects on their children, or themselves. All in all, in moderation digital media can be good, but parents must always be aware and "up to speed" of what their children are getting into.


Bibliography

American Psychological Association. (2003). Childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior, according to a new 15-year study. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2003/03/media- violence.aspx from April 11 2015.

Barrett, B. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting. J Child Sexual Abuse. 2009;18:489-512.

Canadian Pediatic Society. Impact of media use on children and youth. Journal of Position Statement. 8(1). 301-306. June 2013

Chien, Ming-tso. (2013) Digital media's transformative role in education: Beyond potential to essential. ProQuest PsycINFO. Volume 74. ISBN: 9781267863119. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Cowie, H. (2013). Cyberbullying and its impact on young people's emotional health and well-being | BJPsych Bulletin. Retrieved April 10, 2015 from http://pb.rcpsych.org/content/37/5/167

Davis, K., Weigel, M., James, C., & Gardner, H. (2008). Social Development in the Era of New Digital Media. 1-15. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://thegoodproject.org/pdf/No-60-Social-Development-in-Era-of-NDM.pdf

Guadagno, R. E., Okdie, B. M., & Kruse, S. A. (2012). Dating deception: Gender, online dating, and exaggerated self-presentation. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 642-647. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.010

Gwenn Schurgin O’Keeffe, Kathleen Clarke-Pearson, and Council on Communications and Media (2011) Clinical report—The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. American Academy of Pediatrics. Volume 127. No. 4. Pg. 800-804. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0054.

Lauren A. Jelenchick, Jens C. Eickhoff, Meagan A. Moreno (2012) “Facebook Depression?” Social networking site use and depression in older adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. Volume 52, Issue 1. Doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.05.008.

L.D Rosen, K. Whaling, S. Rab, L.M. Carrier, N.A. Cheever (2013) Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior. Volume 29. Issue 3. Doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.012

Marc Prensky (2001) Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, Vol. 9 No. 5. Retrieved from: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

McWilliams, S., & Barrett, A. (2014). Online dating in middle and later life: Gendered expectations and experiences. Journal of Family Issues, 35(3), 411-436. doi: 10.1177/0192513X12468437

Parenting in a Digital Age. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2015, from https://digitalparenting.wordpress.com/

Rosen, L. D., Cheever, N. A., Cummings, C., & Felt, J. (2008). The impact of emotionality and self-disclosure on online dating versus traditional dating. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2124-2157. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2007.10.003

Socha, T., & Stamp, G. (2009). Parent-child communication outside the family exploring communication in parent-child-society relationships. London: Routledge.

Tietel, E. (2012). The real world of teenage cyberbullying. Retrieved from http://www.macleans.ca/society/life/bullied-to-death/ on April 14 2015.

Victor C. Strasburger, Amy B. Jordan, Ed Donnerstein, (2010) Health effects of media on children and adolescents. Pediatrics. Volume 125, No. 4. Pg. 756-767. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2563

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