The Effects of Child Abuse on Mental Illness into Adulthood

Dear Writer,
Allow us to formally thank you for picking our leading team of researchers to aid you with finding academically renounced resources that discuss the issues revolving around child abuse. The following resources are primarily focused on determining whether or not child abuse has an impact in generating or increasing the likelihood of mental illnesses in the future as an adult. As a brief introduction we discuss the different forms of child abuses as well as the different types of mental illnesses. We will discuss how each specific child abuse has an impact on an individuals brain and what mental illnesses may arise. In the following, we will discuss a variety of different child abuses ranging from physical abuse to neglect in children. The following research will determine whether or not a child who has faced abuse as a child would be more likely to have a mental illness in the future compared to a child who never faced abuse as a child. There will also be numerous case studies present throughout the article that have been conducted in various parts of the world. We would like to thank you again for allowing us to have this opportunity and we hope our research will aid you in writing your article.
Best Wishes,
Fatima, Rhea and Thabesa

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This illustration shows how an individual whom is impacted by abuse compared to an individual who has never experienced any type of abuse. It portrays the psychological effects that someone suffers from like depression after being abused.
Drawn By: Rhea

Table of Contents

Definitions

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Individuals have chronic, exaggerated worry about everyday routine life events and activities, with symptoms lasting at least six months; almost always anticipating the worst even though there is little reason to expect it. They have co-occurring physical symptoms, such as fatigue, trembling, muscle tension, headache, or nausea
Phobias: People with phobia's have extreme, disabling and irrational fear of something that really poses little or no actual danger; the fear leads to avoidance of objects or situations and can cause people to limit their lives
Panic Disorder: People with panic disorder have experienced a panic attack. The disorder occurs when the person fears having another panic attack. Sudden feelings of terror that strike repeatedly and without warning. Physical symptoms include:  chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, abdominal discomfort, feelings of unreality, and fear of dying
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Individuals have anxious impulses to repeat words or phrases or engage in repetitive, ritualistic behavior, such as constant hand washing
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Individuals have persistent symptoms that occur after experiencing a traumatic event such as war, rape, child abuse, natural disasters, or being taken hostage. Examples include: nightmares, flashbacks, numbing of emotions, depression, and feeling angry, irritable, and distracted and being easily startled are common symptoms of PTSD
Clinical Depression: Depression causes people to lose pleasure from daily life, can complicate other medical conditions, and can even be serious enough to lead to suicide. Symptoms of depression include: persistent sad, anxious or “empty” mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed, sleeping too much or too little, early morning awakening, thoughts of death or suicide, etc.
Bipolar Disorder: An illness involving one or more episodes of serious mania and depression. The illness causes a person’s mood to swing from excessively “high” and/or irritable to sad and hopeless, with periods of a normal mood in between. Other symptoms of bipolar disorder include: sleep and eating disturbances and changes in activity and energy levels (A person with bipolar disorder is also at risk of dying by suicide). Symptoms of Manic Behaviour include: Abnormally elevated mood, hyperactivity, poor judgement that leads to risk-taking behavior, etc.
Dysthymic Disorder: a chronic, low grade depression that seems part of the person’s personality. A person with dysthymia has depressed mood and symptoms most of the time for more than two years and has at least two of the following symptoms.Symptoms of Dysthymic include: Low self-esteem, sleep disturbance, appetite disturbance, etc.
Emotion Processing: Emotion perception, communication, interpretation, and regulation of emotion – theories of emotion suggest that behaviour responses to emotions are directly related to emotion processing.

Introduction into Child Abuse

RCMP. (2008, July 28). What is Child Abuse. Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ccaps-spcca/chi-enf-eng.htm

What is Child Abuse?

Child abuse refers to any form of physical, psychological, social, emotional or sexual maltreatment of a child whereby the survival, safety, self-esteem, growth and development of the child are endangered. There are four main types of child abuse: neglect, emotional, physical and sexual. It is important to be aware of the indicators, behavioural changes and the presence of these signs in clusters and not just the presence of one indicator. Child abuse usually reflects patterns of behaviour rather than an isolated incident. The vast majority of child abusers are parents, relatives, or trusted adults, not strangers.

Types of Abuse

Neglect

Failure to give due attention or care to a child resulting in a serious emotional or physical harm. Some Behavioural Indicators include: pale, listless, frequent absence from school, inappropriate clothing for the weather, dirty clothes, abuse of alcohol/drugs, inappropriate acts or delinquent behaviour, begging/stealing food, frequently tired, seeks inappropriate affection, mature for their age, reports their is no caretaker. Some Physical Indicators include: poor hygiene, unattended physical or medical needs, consistent lack of supervision, underweight, poor growth, failure to thrive, constant hunger, under nourished

Emotional Abuse

Verbal attacks or demeaning actions that impact on a child's self esteem and self worth. Some Behavioural Indicators include: depression, withdrawal or aggressive behaviour, overly compliant, too neat and clean, habit disorders (sucking, biting, rocking, etc), learning disorders, sleep disorders, unusual fearfulness, obsessive compulsive behaviour, phobias, extreme behaviour, suicide attempts, developmental delays. Some Physical Indicators include: bed-wetting, headaches, nausea, speech disorders, lags in physical development, disruptive behaviour

Physical Abuse

The intentional use of force against a child resulting in injury or causing bodily harm. Behavioural Indicators include: inconsistent explanation for injuries or cannot remember, wary of adults, flinch if touched unexpectedly, extremely aggressive or extremely withdrawn, feels deserving of punishment, apprehensive when others cry, frightened of parents, afraid to go home. Physical Indicators include: Injuries not consistent with explanations, numerous injuries in varying stages of recovery or healing, presence of injuries over an extended period of time, facial injuries, injuries inconsistent with the child's age and developmental phase

Sexual Abuse

Any form of sexual conduct (touching, exploitation, intercourse) directed at a child. Behavioural Indicators include: sexual knowledge or play inappropriate to age, sophisticated or unusual sexual knowledge, prostitution, poor peer relationships, delinquent or runaway, reports sexual assault by caretaker, change in performance in school, sleeping disorders, aggressive behaviour, self-abusive behaviours, self mutilation. Physical Indicators include: unusual or excessive itching in the genital or anal area, stained or bloody underwear, pregnancy, injuries to the vaginal or anal areas, venereal disease, difficult in walking or sitting, pain when urinating, vaginal/penile discharge, excessive masturbation, urinary tract infections
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Introduction into Mental Illness

MHA. (2015, January 1). THE FIVE (5) MAJOR CATEGORIES OF MENTAL ILLNESS. Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://triadmentalhealth.org/the-five-5-major-categories-of-mental-illness/

What is Mental Illness

Mental illness is similar to physical illnesses are on a continuum of severity. More than 54 million Americans have a mental illness in at any given time of their life, however, only few actually go and seek treatment. Statistics have shown that one in four adults and one in five children will have a mental health disorder at some point in their lives There are over 200 different classified forms of mental illnesses but there are five main categories of illnesses. The five main categories of mental illnesses are anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia/psychotic disorders, dementia and finally eating disorders.

Types of Mental Illness

Anxiety Disorders

An anxiety disorder may exist if the anxiety experienced is disproportionate to the circumstance, is difficult for the individual to control, or interferes with normal functioning. More than 19 million American adults are affected by an anxiety disorder. People with anxiety disorders also have other physical or mental disorders such as: depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, cancer or heart disease as examples. Examples of Anxiety Disorders: panic attacks, frightening physical symptoms, flashbacks of traumatic events, nightmares, obsessive thoughts or where even someone can become housebound. Examples of Specific Anxiety Disorders: phobias, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder.

Mood Disorders

Mood disorders are outside the bounds of normal fluctuations from sadness to elation. Mood disorders affect about 7% of Americans and rank among the top 10 causes of disability. In the workplace, major/clinical depression is a leading cause of absenteeism and diminished productivity. Mood disorders include: clinical or major depression, dysthymia and bipolar disorder, formerly known as “manic-depression”. Similar to anxiety disorders, mood disorders affect around 19-20 million American adults.

Schizophrenia/Psychotic Disorders

Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder and is characterized by a profound disruption in cognition and emotion, affecting the most fundamental human attributes such as:  language, thought, perception, affect and sense of self. The array of symptoms include psychotic manifestations, such as hearing internal voices or experiencing other. Sensations not connected to an obvious source (hallucinations) and assigning unusual significance or meaning to normal events or holding fixed personal beliefs (delusions). Schizophrenia is believed to be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain that cause a variety of “positive” symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and incoherent speech and impaired reasoning. Negative Symptoms: Can't show feelings, can't start or maintain conversations, minimal flow of thought, lack of motivation, unable to feel pleasure, minimal self-care and grooming. Schizoaffective Disorder includes: A variant of Schizophrenia. Persons with schizoaffective disorder show more mood symptoms. A person with schizoaffective disorder usually has less long term impairment IF they receive treatment

Dementias

Dementia is characterized by a disturbance of consciousness and a change in cognition, (including memory loss and a decline of intellectual and physical functioning) which develops over a short period. These disorders include Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, dementia due to medical conditions, (e.g., HIV, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, head trauma), substance-induced dementia (drug abuse, alcohol abuse, inhalants, toxin exposure [mercury, lead, carbon dioxide, etc.] and dementia due to a combination of multiple factors.

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are serious, sometimes life-threatening, conditions that tend to be chronic.  Each year, more than five million Americans have an eating disorder. Onset usually occurs in adolescence and tends to predominately affect females. It is present when a person experiences severe disturbances in eating behavior such as extreme reduction of food intake or extreme overeating or feelings of extreme distress or concern about body weight or shape. The three major eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa (self-starvation), Bulimia Nervosa (binge eating followed by purging, fasting or excessive exercise), Binge Eating Disorder (involves episodic, uncontrolled consumption of food, without the compensatory activities such as vomiting or laxative abuse to avert weight gain that is associated with bulimia). Persons with eating disorders may also have other mental illnesses such as: depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), personality or substance abuse disorder.

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Impacts of Sexual Abuse as a Child on Mental Illness as a Adult

Comparison of Short-term and Long-term Effects of Sexual Abuse

Ozbaran, B., Erermis, S., Bukusoglu, N., Bildik, T., Tamar, M., Ercan, E., … Cetin, S. (2009). Social And Emotional Outcomes Of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample In Turkey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,24(9), 1478-1493.

The following authors are looking the effects of childhood sexual abuse and how it may cause psychiatric disorders like PTSD and depression. The psychiatrists have noted that not all sexually abused children have serious psychiatric complications/problems. It is roughly up to 40% of sexually abused children may show few or no symptoms of psychological disorders/illnesses. Such psychological and mental disorders include but limited to: fears, anxiety, PTSD, externalizing/internalizing behavior problems sexualized behaviors, depression, suicidal behaviors and poor self-esteem. During the years of 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University located in Izmir, Turkey. There were two evaluations that were done, the first was a clinical routine where the child's psychological and social adjustment were assessed. Also basic information was written down, the child's behavior was assessed for the past 6 months as well as the mental capacity were also evaluated. Approximately two years later after the initial evaluation of these children, their psychological adjustment is evaluated. In order to do this, the psychiatrists conducted semi-structured interviews where a form for the sociodemographic characteristics are used to evaluate these children. These psychiatrists conducting the second initial interview are unaware of the first evaluation to ensure there is no bias included. The psychiatrists concluded that sexually abused children have more psychiatric disorders within the first year than 2 years later or more. They also noticed that some behavior problems occurred at both short-term and long-term follow-up interviews that were done. This research has demonstrated and concluded that their are psychological, interpersonal, and behavioral problems in adults whom have a history of child sexual abuse (however as noted previously, this is not always the case). There is a noticeable emotional and psychological impact that occurs in adulthood because of sexual abuse that was faced as a child. They have also concluded that sexually abused children have a higher incidence of behavior problems such as anxiety, depression, attention problems, aggression and social/withdrawal problems. They have also concluded that there were no significantly relationships between psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic features (i.e. Gender, age, family), of duration of abuse, or abuse type. Therefore, this study is beneficial for your research paper because it outlines the effects of sexual abuse in both a short-term and long-term regarding an individuals behavior and psychological health.

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Hospitalized Youth and Child Abuse: A Systematic Examination of Psychiatric Morbidity and Clinical Severity

Keeshin, B., Strawn, J., Luebbe, A., Saldaña, S., Wehry, A., Delbello, M., & Putnam, F. (2014). Hospitalized youth and child abuse: A systematic examination of psychiatric morbidity and clinical severity. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(1), 76-83. Retrieved April 14, 2015.

This study is important because it shows a history of sexual abuse was associated with more medication use than in their non-traumatized peers and a higher likelihood of treatment with antipsychotic medications, both at admission and discharge. The findings from this study draw attention to the adverse impact of abuse on psychiatric morbidity and complexity and suggest the need for trauma-informed treatment in psychiatric hospital settings.

In this study it assessed FOUR associations.

Associations between abuse and demographic features
Patients with a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to be African American, living with an adoptive parent or in the custody of social services, and have public insurance. Those with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely to be female, have a legal charge or past incarceration, and to be admitted for suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. Those with a history of physical and sexual abuse had more prior hospitalizations compared to victims of only one type of abuse or patients without histories of abuse. 
Associations between abuse and diagnosis
All patients with histories of abuse were more likely to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, and as expected, this was most commonly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). No difference in rates of diagnosis was found for mood, disruptive behavior, or substance use disorders among groups.
Associations between abuse and hospital length of stay
Regarding length of hospitalization, at the univariate level, a history of abuse was associated with a greater mean number of days spent on the inpatient unit.
Associations between abuse and pharmacotherapy
Upon admission, those with a history of sexual abuse (regardless of physical abuse status) were prescribed more antipsychotic medications than youth with no history of trauma. Additionally, those with a history of sexual abuse were prescribed a greater total number of medications, on average, compared to youth with no trauma history. In addition to sexual abuse, increasing age, male sex, white race, and a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis were associated with more medications prescribed. In contrast, over and above other effects in the model, mood or substance use disorder diagnoses were associated with a decreased number of prescribed medications. Physical abuse was unrelated to number of medications prescribed.

Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Assault: Their Experiences

McDonald, S., & Tijerino, A. (2013). Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Assault: Their Experiences. Retrieved April 4, 2015, from http://www.justice.gc.ca

Dr. Susan McDonald holds a law degree as well as a PhD and works for Department of Justice, Research and Statistics Division. Dr. Adam Tijerino also works for the Department of Justice. This research study represents one of the few in Canada to examine the experiences of male child sexual abuse and ASA male sexual abuse survivors. This study can add to researchers’ and practitioners’ understanding of the effects of sexual abuse as well as coping strategies and suggestions for other survivors and those working in the criminal justice system
Their work was funded by the Department of Justice Canada which provides also makes funds available to provinces, territories and non-governmental organizations for programs and services that give victims of crime a more effective voice in the criminal justice system. The purpose of this study was to research the experience of male sexual abuse victims and the way their lives were impacted due to the abuse.
The study found that many male survivors suffered from many symptoms of psychological distress such as depression and PTSD which had many related impacts as well. Some associated psychological impacts were: Distrustful of others, Feelings of shame, unworthiness

Psychological Effects of Sexual Abuse

Collings, S. J. (1994) ‘The long-term effects of contact and non-contact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men’, Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(1), pp. 1–6.

This research paper was written by Steven J. Collings who works for The University of Natal in South Africa. The study focuses on illustrating the varying degrees of psychological problems that can be caused by different forms of sexual abuse.
This study is useful because it helps one understand that the higher the degree of abuse leads to higher degree of psychological problems. General studies are usually more restrictive because they tend to focus on sexual abuse that involves physical contact. This study compared people who had unwanted sexual experiences either contact (eg: intercourse) or non contact (sexual invitations) to people who did not report any unwanted sexual experiences. All participants in the study had never received any sort of therapy for the abuse and had never reported their abuse to the police or any social agency. This helped strengthen the evidence of the study. Collings found that victims of the contact abuse group reported higher levels of symptoms of many psychological problems such as PTSD, anxiety, depression.
The value of this information is very significant because firstly, it displays the alarming degree of sexual abuse and psychological problems continue to face. It also promotes awareness of the need for more accessible male sexual abuse support. None of the men that participated for the research has reported their abuse to the authority and had not received any counseling or therapy. This illustrates the need for more involvement regarding male sexual abuse cases and the increasing need for more professional therapy as well.

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Trauma Centrality and PTSD Symptom Severity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

Robinaugh, D. J. and McNally, R. J. (2011) ‘Trauma centrality and PTSD symptom severity in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse’,Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(4), pp. 483–486. doi: 10.1002/jts.20656.
http://journals1.scholarsportal.info/pdf/08949867/v24i0004/483_tcapssasocsa.xml

This research paper was submitted for the Journal of Traumatic Stress in Harvard University by Donald Robinaugh and Richard McNally and was funded by the Milton Fund. Robinaugh is a professor at Harvard University who works in the Department of Psychology. McNally is a professor at Harvard University and studies anxiety disorder and has written many pieces on PTSD. The report claims that the exposure to traumatic events in childhood such as sexual abuse has been associated with in an increase in developing various impacts such as depression and PTSD in adulthood. The reason for such impacts is due to the lack of availability in cortisol which results from severe psychological problems. Cortisol has important restricting effects on the central CRH system, the decrease in cortisol is a result of childhood trauma and triggers central stress responses.
This finding is significant because it illustrates that sexual abuse does not just impact a victim on a short term. Rather the suffering continues till adulthood and has very detrimental impact in the development of the victim. The study can be used illustrate how childhood trauma not only effects one on psychological level but also has very destructive long lasting biological impacts as well. this study can introduce a new line of therapy that can focus on how to increase the availability of cortisol to restrict the stress responses.

Comparison of Child Perpetrators, Adult Perpetrators and Non-abused Children

Allen, B., Tellez, A., Wevodau, A., Woods, C., & Percosky, A. (2014). The Impact of Sexual Abuse Committed by a Child on Mental Health in Adulthood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,29 (12), 2257-2272.

The study examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse has on an individuals mental health. Various of studies have previously confirmed that there are emotional and behavioral problems at various stages of development as a result of childhood sexual abuse. They note that children may be perpetrators of sexual abuse against other children – one out of every eight incidents of childhood sexual abuse is committed by a child under 12 years of age. Findings suggest that children victimized by juveniles and adult experiences similar levels of emotional and behavior distress, including depression, anger, anxiety, and PTSD, regardless whether the perpetrator was the child or adult. This study was focused on the presentation of children referred for a mental health evaluation, which does not provide information on functioning in later life and relies on a sample pre-selected based on the likelihood of existing emotional and/or behavior problems. The study concluded that those abused by adolescents/adults were more likely to demonstrate signs of psychosis compared with the other two groups (those were abused by someone younger than 13, and those who were not abused) and they were also more likely to report anxiety symptoms than the control group. This study divided participants experiencing child sexual abuse into three separate groups depending on the age of the perpetrator (child peer, teenager, adult) and includes a non-abused control group. Second, other maltreatment and traumatic experiences were assessed, so the impact of these experiences could be examined on mental health outcomes. Third, characteristics of the sexual abuse and post-abuse events and perceptions were compared across the abused groups. A questionnaire was completed that was later compared to numerous checklists in order to assess the individuals mental health. The checklists include Trauma Symptom Checklist, PTSD checklist-civilian version, Comprehensive Child Maltreatment scale and the Trauma history questionnaire. The study noted that there were a significant difference observed on each of the outcome variables that included PTSD, depression, anxiety, and sexual problems. For depression and anxiety, each of the abused groups obtained higher scores than the non abused group. Sexual problems occurred more in the child and teen groups compared to the non-abused group as well. Post hoc comparisons showed that the Teen group continued to score significant higher on PTSD than the non-abused group, however, only the child and teen groups scored higher than the non-abused group on depression and only the teen group scored higher than the non-abused group on anxiety. In regards to sexual problems, only the teen group demonstrated more problems than the non-abused group. This article is important because it demonstrates the significance in mental health/illnesses in comparison to individuals who were not sexually abused as a child. There is a high increase in the likelihood of of mental illnesses along with sexual/emotional problems.

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Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

Cromer, L., & Goldsmith, R. (2010). Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences. Journal Of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(6), 618-647. doi:10.1080/10538712.2010.52249

Lisa DeMarni Cromer has PhD in Clinical Psychology and is a professor at the University of Tulsa and heads the department of Psychology. Rachel E. Goldsmith specializes in clinical psychology and has a PhD from Rush University Medical Center. This research paper was written to raise awareness on the prevalence of myths amongst people regarding childhood sexual abuse. This research was conducted through various research methods such as interview, questionnaires and even searching online sites. The research paper reports that there is a prevalence of myths surrounding CSA are believed to be true by a large majority of people. Their research found that it was not only ordinary people who held such beliefs but professional organizations as well. They found that scholarly journal articles found in search engines such as PYSCH Info contained many journal articles promoting such myths.
There were a few prevalent themes that were found when studying CSA myths. A few of them are: myths about the extent of harm CSA poses, Myths that deny the existence of CSA or assert that it is extremely rare, Myths that diffuse perpetrator responsibility. These were just a few of the predominant themes that were discovered in the study.
This study helps writers realize how misinformed people are on such an important issue. This raises awareness on the need to focus on educational and prevention programs (Cromer &Goldsmith, 2010) in order to benefit prevention, reporting and intervention efforts. CSA myths impact judicial decisions regarding criminal cases and falsifying these myths can affect the way professionals respond to CSA cases. It impacts the way victims are diagnosed and treated for the psychological effects they face later on in life.

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Impacts of Physical Abuse as a Child on Mental Illness as a Adult

Long-Term Physical and Mental Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse

Springera, K., Sheridan, J., Kuoc, D., & Carnesb, M. (2007). Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results From a Large Population-based Sample of Men and Women. Child Abuse & Neglect,31 (5), 517-530.

This article attempts to examine how childhood physical abuse by parents impacts an individuals mid-life mental and physical health, and to explore the attenuating effect of family background and childhood adversities. Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential con-founders. Childhood maltreatment has been associated with many psychological and somatic symptoms in adult life as well as psychiatric diagnoses including depression, anxiety disorders, easting disorders, and PTSD. Combination of multiple types of maltreatment are associated with increased health problems. Childhood physical abuse affects different aspects of adult health in a population-based sample of men and women. To isolate the effects of childhood physical abuse, they account for a variety of family background and childhood adversity measures to rule out the possibility of a spurious association between childhood physical abuse and adult health problems. Data for this project are from the sibling respondents of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS). The WLS is a long-term population-based study of men and women who graduated in 1957 from Wisconsin high schools and their siblings. The sibling respondents (hereafter respondents) were interviewed in 1977 and 1994. The 1994 round of data collection consisted of a 1-hour telephone interview followed by a 20-page mail survey. Data collection in 1977 focused on education, occupation, and family demographics whereas data collection in 1994 focused on health, well-being and ageing, in addition to education, occupation, and family. In the results they concluded that childhood physical abuse is associated with extreme ill health for medical diagnoses, depression, anger and anxiety, yet not physical symptoms after controlling for sex, age, and the trimmed set of family background and childhood adversity variables. Childhood physical abuse is associated with an 84% increase in the odds of having more medical diagnoses than 90% of the sample, a 61% increase in the odds of reporting more depression than 90% of the sample, a 102% increase in the odds of reporting more anger than 90% of the sample, and 78% increase in the odds of reporting more anxiety than 90% of the sample. Childhood physical abuse often does not occur alone and that experiencing multiple abuses increases adult health risk They had hypothesize that abuse increases the number of health problems, but we cannot rule out the possibility that the presence of ill health may have enhanced recall of abuse. This study is important because this study demonstrates that self-reported physical abuse in childhood is associated with poor mental and physical health, including chronic medical conditions, even decades after the abuse.

Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders

Tracie, A., Brownridge, D., Cox, B., & Jitender, S. (2006). Physical punishment, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders. 30(10), P1093-1103. Retrieved April 9, 2015.

This study focused was important because physical punishment was associated with increased odds of major depression, alcohol abuse/dependence, and externalizing problems in adulthood after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental bonding dimensions. It is also significant that individuals experiencing physical punishment only were at increased odds of adult psychopathology compared to those experiencing no physical punishment/abuse and at decreased odds when compared to those who were abused. To create the three varying severity of childhood adversity groups, questions regarding physical punishment, child physical abuse, rape, and sexual molestation were asked of all the respondents. This allowed for a clear responses, for more accurate data.In conclusion physical punishment is a mild form of childhood adversity that shows an association with adult psychopathology. This article supports our argument by saying that abuse does lead to psychiatric disorder later on in life.

Connection between Physical and Sexual Abuse and the Impact on Mental Illnesses

Relationship Between Disassociation,Childhood Sexual Abuse,Childhood Physical Abuse and Mental Illness in a General Population Sample

Mulder, R., Beautrais, A., Peter, J., & Fergusson, D. (1998). Relationship between dissociation, childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, and mental illness in a general population sample. 155(6), 806-11.

This article is significant because the influence of sexual abuse was due to its associations with current psychiatric illness and with childhood physical abuse. Childhood physical abuse was not directly related to current psychiatric illness. Its association appeared to be mediated by its link to childhood sexual abuse. This study confirms that a small proportion (approximately 6%) of the general population suffer from high levels of dissociative symptoms. Data was collected randomly selected from Canterbury region of New Zealand.  An age- and gender-stratified sample was obtained, the selection being proportional to the known age and gender distribution of the population aged 18 years and over. This is significant because only country is being represented therefore the data might not be as accurate, and in some ways bias.

This study suggests that childhood sexual abuse was unrelated to the level of dissociation when allowance was made for the linkages between 1) childhood sexual abuse and current mental disorder and 2) childhood sexual abuse and childhood physical abuse. This article criticizes our argument by saying that abuse and mental disorder are untreated. This is useful because it allows the reader to see different point of views, and provides our research to be non bias.

Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

Fergusson, D., Boden, J., & Horwood, L. (2006). Exposure To Childhood Sexual And Physical Abuse And Adjustment In Early Adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(6), 607-619. Retrieved April 15, 2015.

This study showed that exposure to CSA (Child Sexual Abuse) and CPA (Child Physical Abuse) was associated with increased risks of later mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorder, conduct/anti-social personality disorder, substance dependence, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts at ages 16–25. 
However, there was a consistent finding for CSA to remain associated with increased risks of later mental health problems. After adjustment, those exposed to CSA including attempted or completed sexual penetration had rates of disorder that were 2.4 times higher than those not exposed to CSA. Those exposed to harsh or abusive physical punishment had rates of disorder that were 1.5 times higher than those exposed to no or occasional physical punishment. It was estimated that exposure to CSA accounted for approximately 13% of the mental health problems experienced by the cohort. Findings showed that exposure to CPA had only weak effects on later mental health. 
In conclusion exposure to CSA was associated with consistent increases in risks of later mental health problems. Exposure to CPA had weaker and less consistent effects on later mental health. These findings suggest that much of the association between CPA and later mental health reflects the general family context in which CPA occurs, whereas this is less the case for CSA.

Impacts of Maltreatment as a Child on Mental Illness as a Adult

Comparison between Maltreated and Non-Maltreated Children into Middle Adulthood

Cahall, J., & Spatz, C. (2014). Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(8), 1369-1381.

A study was conducted in order to determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities into adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing into adulthood. The individuals conducting the study used a prospective cohort design and compared the differences between children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-197 with non-maltreated children and followed up with the children into adulthood. They assessed potential mediators in young adulthood, such as dysthymia, major depressive disorders (MDD), PTSD, generalized anxiety (GAD), IQ and psychopathy, with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (median age was approximately 47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing while structural equation modelling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than the control group of middle aged men who were not maltreated as a child. They concluded that MDD, GAD, and IQ all were incorporated in predicting overall picture recognition accuracy. However, it was noted that of the mediators that were examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect has on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. They also concluded that childhood maltreatment has been linked to externalizing traits such as antisocial behavior and psychopathy. Maltreated children may show emotion processing deficits in adulthood through higher levels of psychopathic traits, reflecting greater desensitization, less empathy, or less responsiveness to the needs of others – all critical characteristics of psychopaths. This study is important because these results show us that childhood histories of abuse/neglect predicted deficits in positive, but not negative, picture recognition as well as the negative effects it posses on emotion processing.

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Effects of Maltreatment on the Physical, Emotional and Mental Development

Flynn, M, Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. (2014). The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology Across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective. Developmental Psychology,18 (5), 2165-2175.

This article discusses research on the prospective contribution of the maltreatment experienced by a person during his or her childhood in regards to low self-worth, low relationship quality and other symptoms during adolescence. They discuss the impacts of childhood maltreatment on the physical, emotional and mental development of an individual. Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are likely to acquire a range of liabilities across early development, which pose vulnerabilities for successfully negotiating adolescence. Accordingly, developmental-organizational models incorporate a number of interrelated prospective processes: (a) Childhood maltreatment engenders accumulating vulnerabilities in multiple developmental domains in the course of development, (b) the resulting vulnerabilities are carried forward (i.e., demonstrate stability) across maturation and influence subsequent functioning in other developmental domains, and (c) the intermediary vulnerabilities resulting from childhood maltreatment constitute processes that account for, or mediate, the effects of childhood maltreatment on maladaptation across developmental domains. The participants took part in a multi-wave investigation of the developmental sequential of childhood maltreatment. The youth were assessed three times, specifically, between 7 and 9 years at Wave 1 (W1; i.e., childhood), 13 and 15 years at Wave 2 (W2; i.e., early-mid adolescence), and 15 and 18 years at Wave 3 (W3; i.e., mid-late adolescence). The findings revealed that the number of maltreatment subtypes simultaneously predicted low self-worth, low maternal relationship quality, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in early-mid adolescence. The stability paths of low self-worth, low maternal relationship quality, and both symptom types were significant from early-mid to mid-late adolescence. This article is important because it shows us how maltreatment as a child can impact the individual emotionally (based on interactions with others), physically (low self-worth can lead to eating disorders), and mentally (individuals may form mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, etc).

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This graph shows the various different types of abuse and neglect and the amount of times it has occurred in a child's life whom is under the age of 18

The Relationship Between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

Tracie, A., Bowman, J., Fleshier, W., & Jitender, S. (2009). The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. 33(3), 139-147. Retrieved April 9, 2015.

The purpose was to determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes.It used a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology.This is an important article because it supports our argument that child abuse leads to mental disorders.This study is important because having experienced both parental divorce and child abuse together resulted in significantly increased odds for lifetime PTSD and suicide attempts compared to having experienced either parental divorce or child abuse alone. This is significant because when the experience of parental divorce is accompanied with child abuse, the associations with some poor mental health outcomes are significantly greater compared to the impact of either parental divorce or child abuse on its own. Therefore, parental divorce is an additional childhood adversity that significantly contributes to poor mental health outcomes especially when in combination with child abuse.

Economic Impacts of Sexual Abuse

Education & Employment Statistics

McDonald, S., & Tijerino, A. (2013). Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Assault: Their Experiences. Retrieved April 4, 2015, from http://www.justice.gc.ca

Dr. Susan McDonald and Dijerino both hold Ph.Ds in clinical psychology and both work for the Department of Justice. The study they conducted was completed in order to document the lives and aftermath of male sexual abuse victims. After listing the various psychological impacts, studies realized that the impacts were not only psychological but economic as well. Due to being unable to function normally in society the educational and social status were quite low. The highest level of education completed by the participants in the study ranged from only elementary high school, and some college or university to having completed formal post-secondary education: college diploma, university degree, and a graduate degree. Over half of the participants were unemployed. Very few of the participants actually had full time jobs; the study reported that for majority of the victims they usually held unprofessional jobs. Low economic levels for CSA victims are largely due to the psychological impacts they face and therefore not being able to function fully on a social level; this makes it very difficult for them to stay employed.
This source is very useful in providing reliable statistics and information on how sexual abuse victims tend to lead a low economic life style. This article explains very clearly how the psychological impacts experienced by childhood sexual abuse victims lead to difficult in operating in social contexts and therefore lowering their likely hood of being able to hold a job. The study is useful in illustrating on how psychological impacts are not just localized to impacting one’s mental health but can also lead to detrimental impacts in one’s economic status as well.

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Later-Life Economic Consequences

Barrett, A., & Kamiya, Y. (January, 2012). Childhood sexual abuse and later-life economic consequences. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, IZA 10-16. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from http://ftp.iza.org

Alan Barrett and Yumiko Kamiya both wrote this discussion paper for IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor)
They explore whthere older men who reported to have been sexually abused as children had lower labor force attachment and lower incomes when compared to other men.
Studies report that men who were child sexual abuse victims were 4 times more likely to be out of labor force due to sickness and disability. They also spent a higher proportion of their potential working lives out of the labor force for these reasons and have lower incomes (Barrett, Kamiya, 2012). Due to the various psychological problems associated with childhood sexual abuse such as depression, borderline personality disorder and PTSD victims of such abuse are found to have lower incomes and less profession jobs. The psychological problems not only affect their health but also their socio- economic status.
This research paper is very useful as it illustrates the diverse and detrimental effects CSA has on a victim. Although one can be treated for the physical and psychological effects the long term effects will always remain with the victims.

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Biological and Neurological Impacts of Childhood Sexual Abuse

Decreased Cortical Representation of Genital Somatosensory Field After Childhood Sexual Abuse

Heim, C., Mayberg, H., Mletzko, T., Nemeroff, C., & Pruessner, J. (July, 2012). Decreased Cortical Representation of Genital Somatosensory Field After Childhood Sexual Abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 616-616. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org

The authors wanted to evaluate the relationship between the experience of childhood abuse and neuroplastic thinning of cortical fields, depending on the nature of the abusive experience” (Heim &Mayberg et.al, 2012). The research was conducted using MRI-based cortical thickness analysis in 51 medically healthy adult women to test whether different forms of childhood abuse were associated with cortical thinning in areas critical to the perception and processing of specific behavior implicated in the type of abuse.
The study found that in sexual abuse victims there was cortical thinning in the genital representation filed of the primary somatosensory cortex. Cortical thickness is related to brain development, “with thicker regions generally suggesting healthier growth” (Szalavitz, 2013). This study suggests that there are severe structural effects on the brain as a function of early childhood experience. As a result of the structural brain changes there are various psychological effects depending on the type and degree of abuse the victim suffered. The cortical thinning results in weak neurological connections in a specific area leading to weak sensations and perceptions in the brain areas that we damaged.
The findings provided in this study are important because it provides the root develop of the psychological effects of abuse in sexual abuse victims and can help readers understand the irreversible damage that can be caused by such abuse. This journal article can benefit the writer by highlighting the different parts of the brain structure that are impacted by different abuses experienced by the victims. This study is also useful in tracing the process of how sexual abuse impacts a victim psychologically clearly explains the different impacts cuased by various childhood abuses.
This helps the audience realize the extent of the impacts childhood trauma can have and how irreversible it is. It also illustrates the vast misrepresentation of the epxeirence of victims and the lack of economic and social support victims have.

Distinction between the Psychological Impact experienced by men and women

Psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse in adult males

Quinones-Munoz, S. (2001). Psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse in adult males (Order No. AAI3012616). Available from PsycINFO. (619709464; 2001-95020-237). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619709464?accountid=15182

This journal article is a dissertation written by Sandra Quinones -Munoz as part of a requirement for the degree of doctor of psychology for Carlos Albizu University. The dissertation was written in order to illustrate the long and short term effect of sexual abuse during childhood, the dissertation used many different reliable sources and statistics as evidence to support the arguments that were laid out. Munoz’s dissertation was based on several studies done by other reliable sources. Although the level of reading was meant for a PhD degree, the information was written in a very organized fashion and was easily interpreted
The main aim of this dissertation was to measure the degree of psychological effects sexual abuse during early ages led to in both men and women. Munoz provided the history on the different views on sexual abuse and provides some statistics regarding male and female abuse to illustrate the large silence society has taken regarding male sexual abuse. A large portion of male sexual abuse goes unreported and therefore unresolved. Munoz also discusses what risk factors make it more likely for a child to be sexually abused. For example in sexually abused males it was found that they came from very poor households where the father was mostly unemployed, there was poor family dynamics and both parents were usually abusive (Munoz, 2001).
Munoz then discusses the long term psychological problems that are experienced by victims who faced childhood sexual abuse. The degree of psychological problems/ trauma experienced by such victims can be influenced by many important factors such as: the closeness of the child's relationship to the offender, the duration of the abuse, the severity of the abuse, and the age of the victim at the time of the abuse.
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Psychological Effects of childhood sexual Abuse: Male and Female

Quinones-Munoz, S. (2001). Psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse in adult males (Order No. AAI3012616). Available from PsycINFO. (619709464; 2001-95020-237). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619709464?accountid=15182

Studies found that both men and women who were sexually abused with the use of force, were found to have greater incidence in areas such as depression, inability to trust and suicide attempts (Munoz, 2001). Results of the MMPI Questionnaire found a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychological maladjustment for both male and female victims. Areas of adjustment included relationships, sexual and emotional adjustment. Males were found to experience more anxiety, distrust, and rumination, men also scored higher on instances of: Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviant, and Schizophrenic Scales. Victims also experience Anhedomia which is the inability to experience pleasure. Victims also have a difficulty in trusting anyone and displaying their emotions.
This dissertation is very significant to our topic because it provides a history of the perspective on sexual abuse has evolved and changed greatly to end up where we are today. The study also provides very important distinctions between the different psychological effects both men and women face. This is significant because it can lead to different therapies being developed for different psychological problems for men and women.

Sexual Abuse: I Am A Survivor - PODCAST

This podcast was uploaded by ShareWIK Sexual Abuse – this channel is dedicated to changing the lives of sexual abuse victims by helping them open up their personal experiences. This channel also helps viewers understand what victims go through and to eliminate myths surrounding the topic of sexual abuse.
This short documentary is on Hannah who was the victim of sexual abuse, in the documentary she talks about her personal experience on sexual abuse and the aftermath of it. She talks about the various mental and psychological problems she faced as a result of the abuse. Her mother is also interviewed and the viewers are given a look at how sexual abuse on a person not only detrimentally affects them but their family as well.
This video is very useful because it gives a very personal account on how sexual abuse affects a victim’s life and the family. The video also gives us an insight on how the psychological problems start developing in a victim and how they continually increase and worsen over time, it also depicts how impacts that are experienced are not limited to just the victim, rather, the impacts consume the family and loved ones of the victims as well. There are many articles and research papers on what impacts the victim faces but the victim’s family is not included as much.

Conclusion


After conducting our research we have concluded our hypothesis was correct; child abuse does increase the likelihood of mental illness. However we have included special cases where the opposite happened, so we have non bias information. We used journals as our basis for information give you an accurate result. I hope you find our research useful and helpful towards your study.
Sincerely,
Rhea, Thabesa & Fatima

References

  1. Allen, B., Tellez, A., Wevodau, A., Woods, C., & Percosky, A. (2014). The Impact of Sexual Abuse Committed by a Child on Mental Health in Adulthood. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,29 (12), 2257-2272.
  2. Barrett, A., & Kamiya, Y. (January, 2012). Childhood sexual abuse and later-life economic consequences. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, IZA 10-16. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from http://ftp.iza.org
  3. Cahall, J., & Spatz, C. (2014). Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(8), 1369-1381
  4. Collings, S. J. (1994) ‘The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men’, Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(1), pp. 1–6.
  5. Cromer, L., & Goldsmith, R. (2010). Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences. Journal Of Child Sexual Abuse, 19(6), 618-647. doi:10.1080/10538712.2010.52249
  6. Fergusson, D., Boden, J., & Horwood, L. (2006). Exposure To Childhood Sexual And Physical Abuse And Adjustment In Early Adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(6), 607-619. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  7. Flynn, M, Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. (2014). The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology Across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective. Developmental Psychology,18 (5), 2165-2175.
  8. Heim, C., Mayberg, H., Mletzko, T., Nemeroff, C., & Pruessner, J. (July, 2012). Decreased Cortical Representation of Genital Somatosensory Field After Childhood Sexual Abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 616-616. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org
  9. Keeshin, B., Strawn, J., Luebbe, A., Saldaña, S., Wehry, A., Delbello, M., & Putnam, F. (2014). Hospitalized youth and child abuse: A systematic examination of psychiatric morbidity and clinical severity. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(1), 76-83. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  10. McDonald, S., & Tijerino, A. (2013). Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Assault: Their Experiences. Retrieved April 4, 2015, from http://www.justice.gc.ca
  11. MHA. (2015, January 1). THE FIVE (5) MAJOR CATEGORIES OF MENTAL ILLNESS. Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://triadmentalhealth.org/the-five-5-major-categories-of-mental-illness/
  12. Mulder, R., Beautrais, A., Peter, J., & Fergusson, D. (1998). Relationship between dissociation, childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, and mental illness in a general population sample. 155(6), 806-11.
  13. Ozbaran, B., Erermis, S., Bukusoglu, N., Bildik, T., Tamar, M., Ercan, E., … Cetin, S. (2009). Social And Emotional Outcomes Of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample In Turkey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,24(9), 1478-1493.
  14. Quinones-Munoz, S. (2001). Psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse in adult males (Order No. AAI3012616). Available from PsycINFO. (619709464; 2001-95020-237). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/docview/619709464?accountid=15182
  15. RCMP. (2008, July 28). What is Child Abuse. Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ccaps-spcca/chi-enf-eng.htm
  16. Robinaugh, D. J. and McNally, R. J. (2011) ‘Trauma centrality and PTSD symptom severity in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse’,Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(4), pp. 483–486. doi: 10.1002/jts.20656
  17. Springera, K., Sheridan, J., Kuoc, D., & Carnesb, M. (2007). Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results From a Large Population-based Sample of Men and Women. Child Abuse & Neglect,31 (5), 517-530.
  18. Szalavitz, M. (2013, June 5). Sexual and Emotional Abuse Scar the Brain in Specific Ways | TIME.com. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from http://healthland.time.com (http://healthland.time.com/2013/06/05/sexual-and-emotional-abuse-scar-the-brain-in-specific-ways/)
  19. Tracie, A., Bowman, J., Fleshier, W., & Jitender, S. (2009). The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. 33(3), 139-147. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  20. Tracie, A., Brownridge, D., Cox, B., & Jitender, S. (2006). Physical punishment, childhood abuse and psychiatric disorders. 30(10), P1093-1103. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
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